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27 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
group
two or more persons perceived as related because of their interactions
stereotype
a belief that associates a group of people with certain traits
prejudice
negative feelings toward persons based on their membership in certain groups
discrimination
negative behavior directed against persons because of their membership in a particular group
social categorization
the classification of persons into groups on the basis of common attributes
ingroups
groups with which an individual feels a sense of membership, belonging, and identity
outgroups
groups with which an individual does not feel a sense of membership, belonging, or identity
outgroup homogeniety effect
the tendency to assume that there is greater similarity among members of outgroups than among members of ingroups
entity theorists
people who tend to see social groups as relatively fixed, static entities and the borders between groups as relatively clear and rigid
incremental theorists
people who tend to see social groups as relatively dynamic and changable, with less consistency within groups and more malleability between groups
illusory correlation
an overestimate of the association between variables that are only slightly or not at all correlated
contrast effect
a tendency to perceive stimuli that differ from expectations as being even more different than they really are
subliminal presentation
a method of presenting stimuli so faintly or rapidly that people do not have any conscious awareness of having been expsed to them
superordinate goals
shared goals that can be achieved only through cooperation among individuals or groups
realistic conflict theory
the theory that hostility between groups is caused by direct competition for limited resources
relative conflict theory
the theory that hostility between groups is caused by direct competition for limited resources
relative deprivation
feelings of discontent aroused by the belief that one fares poorly compared with others
ingroup favoritism
the tendency to discriminate in favor of ingroups over outgroups
social identity theory
the theory that people favor ingroups over outgroups in order to enhance their self-esteem
social dominance orientation
a desire to see one's ingroups as dominant over other groups and a willingness to adopt cultural values that facilitate oppression over other groups
sexism
prejudice and discrimination based on a person's gender
social role theory
the theory that small gender differences are magnified in perception by the contrasting social roles occupied by men and women
ambivalent sexism
a form of sexism characterized by attitudes about women that reflect both negative, resentful beliefs and feelings and affectionate chivalrous, but potentially patronizing beliefs and feelings
racism
prejudice and discrimination based on a person's racial background
modern racism
a form of prejudice that surfaces in subtle ways when it is safe, socially acceptable, and easy to rationalize
contact hypothesis
the theory that direct contact between hostile groups will reduce prejudice under certain conditions
jigsaw classroom
a cooperative learning experience method used to reduce racial prejudice through interaction in group efforts