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20 Cards in this Set

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social neuroscience
An integration of biological and social perspectives that explores the neural and psychological bases of social and emotional behaviors.
culture
the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a large group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next.
social representations
socially shared beliefs-widely held ideas and values, including our assumptions and cultural ideologies. Our social representations help us make sense of our world.
Hindsight Bias
The tendency to exaggerate, after learning an outcome, one's ability to have foreseen how something turned out. Also known as the I-knew-it-all-along phenomenon.
theory
an integrated set of principles that explain and predict observed events.
Hypotheses
Serve several purposes:
1.allow us to test a theory by suggesting how we might try to falsify it
2.Predictions give direction to research and sometimes send investigators looking for things they might never have thought of
3. Predictive feature of good theories can also make them practical.
field research
research done in natural, real-life settings outside the labratory.
Correlational Research
The study of the naturally occurring relationships among variables
Experimental Research
Studies that seek clues to cause-effect relationships by manipulating one or more factors (IV's) while controlling others (holding them constant).
Random Sample
Survey procedure in which every person in the population has an equal chance of inclusion
Framing
The way a question or an issue is posed; framing can influence people's decisions and expressed opinions
Independent Variable
The experimental factor that a researcher manipulates
Dependent Varaible
The variable being measured,so called because it may depend on manipulations of the independent variable
Random Assignment
The process of assigning participants to the conditions of an experiment such that all persons have the same chance of being in a given condition. (Note the distinction between random assignment in experiments and random sampling in surveys. Random assignment helps us infer cause and effect. Random sampling helps us to generalize to a population.
Mundane Realism
Degree to which an experiment is superficially similar to everyday situations
Experimental Realism
Degree to which an experiment absorbs and involves its participants
Deception
In research, an effect by which participants are misinformed or misled about the study's methods and purposes.
Demand Characteristics
Cues in an experiment that tell the participant what behavior is expected
Informed Consent
An ethical principle requiring that research participants be told enough to enable them to choose whether they wish to participate
Debriefing
In social psychology, the postexperimental explanation of a study to its participants. Debriefing usually discloses any deception and often queries participants regarding their understandings and feelings