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16 Cards in this Set

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What is the use of a DEFENSIVE ATTRIBUTION?
An ATTRIBUTION OF CAUSALITY develops to RELIEVE ONE'S ANXIETY.

DEFENSIVE ATTRIBUTION
Describe PSYCHOLOGICAL REACTANCE.
It is the tendency to do the opposite of what you are asked to do, especially when the request seems to be threatening your personal freedom.

PSYCHOLOGICAL REACTANCE
What is the AVAILABILITY BIAS?
THE TENDENCY TO ESTIMATE WHAT'S GOING TO HAPPEN IN AN EVENT BASED ON WHAT COMES TO YOUR MIND QUICKLY OR EASILY.

AVAILABILITY BIAS
What did R. Martin (1978) propose and indicated as important in social power for the success of mental health consultation?
EXPERT and REFERENT power are most important for consultation success

What R. Martin proposed as being important in successful mental health consultation.
Describe COGNITIVE DISSONANCE THEORY.
If you have two incompatible cognitions, you experience dissonance, which you attempt to relieve by either changing one of your cognitions or adding dissonance-reducing cognitions.

Cognitive Dissonance theory predicts that an individual who performs a difficult task without sufficient justification attempts to relieve dissonance by fabricating a justification.
What was found in the STUDIES ON CROWDING AND GENDER?
CROWDED SITUATIONS:

Females utilize LESS effective coping strategies than males.

CROWDING AND GENDER
What happens during a SELF-SERVING BIAS?
A person attributes:

+ OUTCOMES to INTERNAL(dispositional) factors

and

- OUTCOMES to EXTERNAL(situational) factors.

SELF-SERVING BIAS
Describe the HALO BIAS.
Occurs when a person's status or performance on one dimension affects how a rater rates him/her on all other dimensions.

HALO BIAS
Describe the CONFIRMATION BIAS.
Believe and PAY ATTENTION to experiences that SUPPORT OUR VIEWS and IGNORE experiences that discredit them.

CONFIRMATION BIAS
Describe COGNITIVE CONSISTENCY BIAS.
Behaviors that are INCONSISTENT with an ESTABLISHED ATTITUDE are likely to be CHANGED.

COGNITIVE CONSISTENCY BIAS
WHAT WAS MISCHEL'S THEORY OF "CONSISTENCY PARADOX" ABOUT?
It views apparent INCONSISTENCIES IN BEHAVIOR across situations as the result of an INTERACTION between RELATIVELY STABLE PERSONALITY DISPOSITIONS, COGNITIVE-AFFECTIVE PROCESSES, and SITUATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS.

BEHAVIOR IS QUITE VARIABLE AND NOT REALLY STABLE OVER DIFF SITUATIONS

MISCHEL'S THEORY OF "CONSISTENCY PARADOX"
Studies on GENDER AND CROWDING
WOMEN DO BETTER IN LAB SETTINGS

MEN DO BETTER IN NATURALISTIC SETTINGS

Studies on GENDER AND CROWDING
Describe the SELF-VERIFICATION THEORY.
PPL W/ DEPRESSION AND LOW SELF-ESTEEM LIKE TO HEAR OTHERS/PEERS, SUPPORT THEIR NEGATIVE SELF-EVALUATIONS.

SELF-VERIFICATION THEORY
What was the ROBBER CAVE STUDY about?
COMPETITION AND COOPERATION

ROBBER CAVE STUDY
CROWDING
-MEN ARE AFFECTED MORE ADVERSELY

-CHILDREN LESS AFFECTED

-TOO MUCH LEADS TO HEALTH PROBLEMS

-PEOPLE DON'T DISCLOSE IN CROWDED SITUATIONS
Describe MALMUTH'S CONFLUENCE MODEL.
AKA the INTERACTION MODEL, SEXUAL AGGRESSION is the result of the CONVERGENCE of 2 MAJOR CONSTELLATIONS or PATHS –

1. HOSTILE MASCULINITY PATH and

2. PROMISCUOUS-IMPERSONAL SEX PATH

Describe MALMUTH'S CONFLUENCE MODEL.