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31 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Social learning theory
Suggests that people learn the techniques and attitudes of crime from close and intimate relationships with criminal peers; crime is a learned behavior.
Social control theory
Maintains that everyone has the potential to become a criminal but that most people are controlled by their bonds to society.
Social reaction theory
Says that people become criminals when significant members of society label them as such, and they accept those labels as a personal identity.
Social learning theory says criminal behavior is learned through?
Human interaction
Social control theory says human behavior is controlled through?
Human behavior is controlled through close associations with institutions and individuals.
Social reation theory (labeling theory)
Some people are labeled "criminal" by polic and court authorities; labeled people are known as troublemakers, criminals, and so on and are shunned by conventional society.
What are the three most prominent forms of social learning theory?
Differential association theory, differential reinforcement theory, and neutralization theory.
Differential Association theory?
According to Sutherland, the principle that criminal acts are related to a person's exposure to an excess amount of antisocial attitudes and values.
Differential reinforcement theory?
Behaviors is reinforced by being either rewarded or punished while interacting with others; also called direct conditioning.
When behavior is punished it is?
Negative reinforcement, which can be distributed by using either negative stimuli (punishment) or loss of a positive reward.
Neutralization theory?
Holds that offenders adhere to conventional values while "drifting" into periods of illegal behavior. In order to drift, people must first overcome(neutralize) legal and moral values. Neutralize coventional values and drift back and forth between illegitimate and conventional behavior.
Subterranean values
Morally tinged influences that have become entrenched in the culture but are publicly condemned. They exist side by side with conventional values and while condemned in public may be admired or practiced in private.
Youths move in and out of delinquency and that their lifestyles can embrace both conventional and deviant values.
Neutralization techniques enable them to temporarily drift away from the rules of the normative society and participate in subterranean behaviors.
1. Deny responsibility
2. Deny injury
3. Deny victim
4. Condemn conderners
5. Appeal to higher loyalties
Denial of responsibility:
Unlawful acts were not their fault. "They made me do it" "I don't have a choice"
Denial of injury:
offender’s perception is changed (i.e. stealing is borrowing)
"They have insurance" "They have too much money" "What's one CD to a big store"
Denial of the victim:
the victim had it coming (i.e. vandalism)
Ignoring victims rights
Condemnation of the condemners:
shifting the blame to others (i.e. society)
Everyone steals, why pick on me?
Appeal to higher loyalties:
loyalty to a higher cause (i.e. Oliver North and Iran Contra)
He is a stranger, Only cowards run away, I have to protect my buddies.
Social control theory also called?
Social bond theory
Hirschi's control theory major premise?
A person's bond to society prevents him or her from violating soical rules. If the bond weakens, the person is free to commit crime.
Strengths of Hirschi's control theory?
Explains the onset of crime; can apply to both middle-and-lower class crime. Explains its theoretical constructs adequately so they can be measured. Has been empirically tested.
Research focus of Hirschi's control theory?
The association between commitment, attachment, involvement, belief, and crime.
Self control
A strong moral sense that renders a person incapable of hurting other or violating social norms.
Commitment to conformity
A strong personal investment in conventional institutions, individuals, and processes that prevents people from engaging in behavior that might jeopardize their reputation and achievements.
Self-control theory
Kids who are impulsive may find that their bond to society is weak.
Elements of the social bond theory?
Attachment (sensitivity to and interest in others)
Commitment (time, energy, and effort into conventional activities)
Involvement (insulates people from the lure of crime)
Belief (moral respect for law and social values)
Social reaction theorist are most concerned with two effects of labeling?
the creation of stigma and the effect on self-image.
A enduring label that taints a person's identity and changes him or her in the eyes of others.
Primary deviance
Involves norm violations or crimes that have very little influence on the actor and can be quickly forgotton. Deviant acts that do not help redefine the self-image and public image of the offender.
Secondary deviance
Occurs when a deviant event comes to attention of significant others or social control agents who apply a negative label.
Accepting deviant labels as a personal identity. Acts become secondary whent ehy form a basis for self-concept, as when a drug experiementer becomes an addict.