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65 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
-networks that share same objects of concern as social movements they oppose
-competing claims, compete for attention, support
-to demobilize opposing mvt.
Importance of opposing movements
-lawmakes must now take into account positions of two different movements
Curvilinear Relationship
(Opposition Movement)
-Movements without influence won't provoke OM
-Movements with limited success will provoke OM (opportunity to make gains)
-Movements that clearly win unlikely to provoke OM
Conditions for Opposition Movement Emergence
-Movement success: curvilinear
-Threats to existing interests and values
-Elite allies and sponsors
Hyde Amendment
No Medicaid funding for abortions
Webster v. Reproductive Health Services
-limitation on abortion services
-ex. no use of public facilities for abortion counseling
Pro-Life Network
-"Thick" Network
-established networks/resources of Catholic church (leaders, facilities, pool of activists)
-organizaitonal diversity
-density of numbers, grass roots support
Pro-Choice Movement
-"Thin" Network
-mainly multi-issue (ACLU, Planned Parenthood, NOW)
-"modern techonologies of mobilization"-mail, door-to-door canvassing, internet
-no more homogeneity
-constant mining for members
Recruitment to Activism
-Moral Shocks
-Frame Alignment
Moral shocks
-info/events that raise outrage in people--> become involved in political action
-motivate people to seek out political organization
-symbols used
Frame Alignment
-Linkage of individual and SMO interpretive orientations
-Individual interests/values/beliefs tied to SMO activities, goals, ideology
-Formulas that assign meanings to events/issues by selecting out and organizing elements into packaged story lines
Diagnostic Framing
Convinces potential converts that a problem needs to be addressed
Prognostic Framing
Convinces of appropriate strategies, tactics and targets
Motivational Framing
Exhorts people to get involved
Frame Bridging
Linking individuals to organizations--organizational outreach
Frame Amplification
Evoke/amplify deeply cherished values
Central American Peace Movement Interpretive Frames
-Another Vietnam
-Way-ward America
-Imperial America
Attitudinal/Ideological Affinity
Motive to get involved in the individual
Latitude of Rejection
Pool of people who won't even touch movement
Latitude of Acceptance
Pool of people who would agree that issues are important, accept goals of movement
Beyond differences in personal attributes-->socially patterned situational factors that condition beliefs, actions (social networks, institutional involvement, occupational roles, etc.)
Types of recruitment into activism
Interpersonal Ties
Organizational Memberships
Interpersonal ties
Strong ties that serve as an invitation to participate and ease the uncertainty of involvement--friends, family in movement
expenditures of time, money, energy
anticipated dangers
Biographical Availability
Absence of personal constraints that may increase costs of participation, e.g. full-time employment, family responsibilities, etc.
Cognitive Accessibility
Organizational and relational positioning that provides exposure to information about events that violate moral sensibilities
--activisits have more in depth, credible information (not just from media)--access to different mediums-->more subject to being exposed to informatino that deeply violates moral standing
Subjective Engageability
Cultural and social positioning so that moral violations are likely to become high priorities in personal relevance-structures
--ie. giving a human face to a crisis
Gay lesbian movement beginnings
Starts from scratch
--must create institutions, constituency of like-minded people
-reliance on national organizations to bring visibility to issue--ACLU, NOW, etc.
Political Logics
Background sets of assumptions about how society works, the goals of political action, and the appropriate strategies to pursue desired ends
Master Frames
Cultural backdrop, taken-for-granted theories from which collective action frames are derived
Framing of Gay/Lesbian Movement
-spin-off of broader civil rights movement
"Gay is Good"
-Change from viewing homosexuality as sickness, etc.
-helps build self-esteem, encourage professionals to speak on behalf of gays, lesbians
-not to challenge public view, but rather to convince the public that gays/lesbians are solid citizens
GLBT Organizations
-No explicit identification as "homosexual"
-group names sound like average group names
Gay Power
-Black is Beautiful model
-Redirect energies of movement from Causes of homsexuality to Focus on discrimination
-Goals: acceptance, civil rights, equal treatment (military, marriage, anti-discrimination policy)
Gay Liberation ("Redistributive Logic")
-No more logic focusing on individual rights-->more revolutionary
-Goals: Societal transformation through expanding the gay world, visiblity, pride
-Alliances with other oppressed groups
Conflict in GLBT Movement
-Focus on making sure there is no difference between heterosexuals and homosexuals
-Minority model-boundary between two
Gay plus one
-Positive emphasis on sexuality combined with specific tasks, functions
-Brings people into organization based on what organization does rather than who it is
-Process by which given set of units (e.g., organizations)and a pattern of activities come to be normatively and cognitively held in place, and practically taken for granted as lawful
Public Order Management Systems (POMS)
Guiding policies and programs, technologies, and standard policing practices designated by authorities for supervising protesters' access to public space and managing them in that space
"Negotiated management" POMS
-Primary Goals: Protection of 1st amendment rights; limit disruption
-Communication with demonstrators
-Selective use of arrests as last resort
-Minimal use of force
Key Elements of POMS
-Public statement of general principles of public forum access
-Mandated negotiation and regular communications between affected parties
-Planning by authorities, police (preparation for protest)
-Crowd management/policing
-form of repression
-regulation without force
-Tangle of incentives: encourage organizations to become more formal-->sucked into more conventional activities
Tangle of Incentives
Encourage organizations to become more formal-->sucked into more conventional activities
Threat approach
The larger the threat to political elites, the greater and more severe expected repression
Weakness approach
Power houses will only repress movements that they think will collapse under pressure
Weakness from within
movements with strong infrastructure less likely to be repressed

weak groups lack organizational vehicle-->will collapse more easily
Weakness from without
Groups that are visible, in public eye are less likely to be repressed
Interactive approach
Severe repression more likely when movement or protest event is highly threatening and primarily composed of socially marginalized participants
--white college students from north can get away with same rebbelious activity; act as buffer
Transnational Social Movements
Socially mobilized groups with constituents in at least two states, engaged in sustained contentious interaction with power-holders in at least one state other than their own, or against an international institution, or a multinational economic actor
Reasons for transnational movements
-growing interdependencies: econ, environment
-tech. facilitates communication between nations
Transnational SMOs
Formal organizations that target international institutions and attempt to affect international policies in order to influence state behavior--memberships not contained within single state
Roles of TSMOs
-Provide resources for global activism: opportunities for activisim through internships, volunteer, staff opportunities
Measures of Social Movement success
-Shifts in public opinion-->elected officials
-Increase in awareness
-Continued involvement/mobilization of protesters
-political alliances
-legal decisions
-spin-off movements
Dimensions of Success (Gamson)
-Acceptance of challenging group as a valid spokesman for a legitimate set of interests-->opens up policy process for groups that weren't previously consulted
-New Advantages: gained by challenging group
Movement Society Hypothesis
(Meyer and Tarrow)
-Social protest has become a regular feature of modern life
-Protest used within greater frequency, by more diverse groups, and to represent wider range of claims
-Changes that have promoted institutionalization of social movements representative of trends that led to social movements
Effects of international mass media on natl. govts.
Media allows news to spread across countries-->natl. govts. lose some degre of control over natl. life
Willing trade off with respect to what movements are willing to do so that they don't risk their entry into political debates/discussions

*A component of institutionalization
Components of Instiutionalization
-routinization of collective action (adherence to common script)
-inclusion and marginalization
Political Outcomes of SMs
-policy change
-process change
Cultural outcomes of SM
-chanes in social norms, behaviors
-shifts in belief systems
Discursive Impact
Type of cultural outcome: changes way in which issue understood-->redefinition of political agenda
Organizational outcomes SM
-creation of durable infrastructure for activism-->collective ID formation

(ex. women's party outcome of suffrage-->use infrastructure)
Smart Mobbing
Summoning the masses electronically