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32 Cards in this Set

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social disorganization
high neighborhood crime rates due to weakened norms, social bonds, and conventional social institutions; evidence of social disorganization includes dilapidation and high rates of poverty and divorce
deviant places
stark
high neighborhood crime rates due to high rates of density, poverty, coexistence of residential and commercial property, transience, dilapidation
Anomie
Merton
crime results from the failure to achieve the cultural goal of economic success through the institutional means of working
General Strain
Agnew
negative emotions and thus deliquency result from the failure to achieve desired goals, from the removal of positive stimuli, and from the introduction of negative stimuli
status frustration
Cohen
Deliquency results from the failure of lower class boys to do well in school because of its middle class values
social disorganization
high neighborhood crime rates due to weakened norms, social bonds, and conventional social institutions; evidence of social disorganization includes dilapidation and high rates of poverty and divorce
deviant places
stark
high neighborhood crime rates due to high rates of density, poverty, coexistence of residential and commercial property, transience, dilapidation
Anomie
Merton
crime results from the failure to achieve the cultural goal of economic success through the institutional means of working
General Strain
Agnew
negative emotions and thus deliquency result from the failure to achieve desired goals, from the removal of positive stimuli, and from the introduction of negative stimuli
status frustration
Cohen
Deliquency results from the failure of lower class boys to do well in school because of its middle class values
Focal Concerns
Miller
Deliquency results from several lower class subcultural focal concerns: trouble, toughness, smartness, excitement, fate, and autonomy
Differential Opportunity
Cloward
Ohlin
Whether individuals respond to their lack of access to legitimate means with criminal behavior depends on their access to illegitimate means
subculture of violence
Wolfgang
Ferracuti
High rates of urban violence result from a subculture of violence that favors violent repsonses to insults and other interpersonal conflicts
code of the street
Anderson
A variation of a subculture of violence approach that emphasizes the use and threat of violence to maintain respect; the need for respect results from the despair and alienation in which the urban poor live
Differential association
sutherland
techniques of and attitudes regarding criminal behavior are learned within intimate personal groups; a person becomes delinquent from an excess of definitions favorable to the violation of law over definitions unfavorable to the violation of law
differential identification
Glaser
people pursue criminal behavior to the extent they identify with members of reference groups who engage in criminal behavior
social learning
bandura
aggressive tendencies are learned through a process of rewards for such tendencies and imitation of aggressive behavior
differential reinforcement
burgess and akers
criminal behavior and attitudes are more likely to be learned if they are rewarded by friends and/or family; when the rewards for criminal behavior outweigh the rewards for conforming behavior, differential reinforcement occurs and the criminal behavior is learned
Containment
Reckless
Inner containments (e.g. a positive self concept and tolerance for frustration) and outer containments (e.g. family influences) help prevent juvenile offending
Neutralization and drift
Sykes and Matza
before committing deliquency, adolescents develop techniques of neutralization, or rationalizations, to minimize any guilt they might feel from breaking the law; specific techniques include denial of responsibility, denial of injury, denial of the victim, condemnation of the condemners, and appeal to higher loyalties
social bonding
hirschi
deliquency and crime are more common among individuals with weakened social bonds to conventional social institutions such as the family and school
self control
Gottfredson and Hirschi
Criminal behavior results from low self control, which in turn results from ineffective parenting
control balance
Tittle
People are more likely to engage in deviance when they are either very controlling or very controlled than when they have a balance of control
Coercive control and social support
Colvin and Cullen
Coercion at either the micro or macro level promotes criminal behavior, while social support at either level reduces it
Integrated Strain Control
Elliott
Weak social bonds, strains, and delinquent peers contribute to delinquency adolescents with weak bonds and strain are particulary vulnerable to the delinquent peers influence. Strain may weaken even strong bonds and thus increase delinquent peer associations and deliquency
Interactional
Thornberry
weak social bonds and delinquent peers contribute to deliquency; delinquency and delinquent peer associations may also weaken social bonds and increase delinquency further
Life course persistent/ adolescence limited
Moffitt
Some individuals antisocial behavior is serious, persists through the life course, and begins during childhood because of neuropsychological and other problems. A much greaternumber of individuals antisocial behavior occurs only during adolescence is relatively minor, and is a way of expressing their growing maturity and independence from parents
Age Graded
Sampson and Laub
Weak social bonds, inadequate parenting, and delinquent peers contribute to criminality but turning points in the life course, such as marriage and employment, often lead to desistance from crime
Labeling Theory
Lemert and Becker
Devianceis not a quality of the act a person commits, some people and behaviors are more likely than others to be labeled deviant; the deviant label may lead to continued deviance
Conflict
Sellin Vold and Turk
Law and crime result from conflict among the various groups in society, not just economic classes
radical
Bonger, hall, chambliss, and Quinney
The wealthy use the legal system to protect their dominance and to suppress the poor, the criminal law and justice system reflects the interests of the powerful
Feminist theories
Daly, Chesney-lind, and Simpson
Crime cannot be fully understood and explained without appreciating the important role that gender plays; feminist theories can and should be used to reduce gender inequality in the areas of crime criminal justice, as well as in the larger society