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96 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What is a hot cognition? What is
Hot cognition refers to those mental processes that are driven by our desires and feelings.
What is a Directional Goal? What are two types of directional goals?
The goal or motivation to arrive at a particular conclusion, can bias our judgment.
1. Dissonance Theory and the Crucial Role of Arousal
2. Self-Affirmation
What is the study about taking intelligence test and getting either positive or negative feedback? What is a motivational and Cognitive Account of this?
i. Study- Half P’s told did go on test, half bad. The P’s evaluate the test they did. Those who told did good think test is good, those told bad say test is bad.
ii. Motivational Account: motivated to maintain and enhance one’s self-regard, a desire to believe in a test when do good, and disbelieve when do bad.
iii. Cognitive Account: the P’s were students at elite school so all had expectations of doing well. Ones who told did well affirm their expectations; one who told did bad violate their expectation.
What is cognitive dissonance? What are 3 ways to reduce dissonance, behavioral and cognitive? What are examples of each?
Uncomfortable feelings of physiological arousal from if two ideas don't match or idea and behavior don't match. Leads to motivation to REDUCE the dissonance.

1. by changing our BEHAVIOR bring it in line with the dissonant cognition.
(Change behavior)
2. by attempting to JUSTIFY our behaviour by changing one of the dissonant cognitions.
(Don't think its such a big prob)
3. by attempting to JUSTIFY our behaviour by adding new cognitions.
(Well I am poor so I have to)
What is the Self-Perception Theory?
We determine our attitudes by watching our behaviors and inferring from them our attitudes must be consistent with our actions. If we act in ways e.g. like dissonance studies have us do, we assume we must believe in what the studies have us behave. Attitude change results from cool-minded inferences.
What is the Classic Dissonance Study? What would self-perception theory say low incentives were doing?
Participants do a boring task – turn knobs for 1 hr. Experimenter asks - will you lie to the next participant saying task was fun? P's were either given 0$ 1$ or 20$. P's given 20$ had high incentive so justify actions by saying I lied for the money. P's getting nothing. P's given 1$ had low incentive to do it so get uncomfortable about lying and to reduce uncomfortable feeling convince self that it was fun.

Don't have an opinion about task, I told someone it was fun, so it must have been fun. Cool cognition.
What are the 4 ways to induce Cognitive Dissonance?
1)Induce Compliance Paradigm: do or say something that is contrary to and existing belief or attitude creates dissonance e.g. classic dissonance study.
2)Belief-Disconfirmation Paradigm: exposed to info different to ones belief e.g. I believe in god, here evidence god doesn't exist.
3)Effort Justification Paradigm: engage in unpleasant behavior, one shouldn't do unpleasant things so exaggerate desirability of behavior.
4)the Free-choice Paradigm: choose between 2 desirable options, feel uncomfortable so exaggerate goodness of one you chose.
Is Physiological Arousal Necessary for Dissonance? What is the Study with the pills to prove this?
Did typical dissonance experiment where P’s also had to take a placebo pill. One group told pill will do nothing, others group were told it would make them feel aroused and tense, last group told pill would make them feel relaxed. P’s told pill would do nothing had normal dissonance attitude change. P’s told pill would calm them down had increased attitude change from dissonance. P’s told pill would make them tense had an explanation for their feelings and didn’t have attitude change. Showing, arousal is necessary for attitude change and cognitive account is wrong.
What is the chain of thought in the dissonance theory?
Inconsistent belief or behavior- distress- motivation to reduce stress (whats the cause)- Identify the cause (the previous event)- Attitude change (related to the event).
What is Self-Affirmation? How is it related to dissonance theory? What is the study about liking politics and having to write about tuition hikes?
any thoughts and actions that bring to mind valued aspects of one’s self-concept can also serve to reestablish one’s sense of oneself as a worthy person. Reaffirming one’s self-worth reduces the need to change one’s attitude in the dissonance study.

1. Study- Some P’s (students) cared about politics and some didn’t. Wrote an essay that supports substantial increases in tuition. Creates dissonance. P’s who completed a questionnaire about politics were asked about their attitudes, showing them a valued aspect of themselves (self-affirmation). P’s who cared about politics and did questionnaire had no attitude change while P’s who didn’t care about politics and did questionnaire did have attitude change.
What is an Accuracy Goal? What do accuracy goals cause people to do when making a decision and what does this result in? What could also happen?
Motivated to arrive at the most accurate conclusion. Lead people to favor more elaborate over heuristic processing.
1) invest greater effort.
2) search for best possible reasoning.
-leads to greater accuracy when have better strategies.
1) accuracy goals don't always lead to better judgments because the more we think the less accurate we can become.
What is a Deliberative Mindset? What is an Implemental Mindset?
1) In process of making a decision and leads to consider relevant information in a careful and balanced manner. Give rise to accuracy goals.
2) When just made a decision leads to thoughts and actions necessary to achieve the outcome that has been decided upon. Gives rise to directional goals.
Post-Decisional Dissonance Effect Study and what is Spreading Alternatives? How does this support Implemental and Deliberative mindsets?
P's had to choose between two equally likable CD's. Measured their view in pre-decision and post-decision. In the pre-decision which is the deliberative mindset dissonance was created, what to choose??? Then in the post decsion which is the implemental mindset, dissonance was reduced by saying you liked your choice CD the best, better then the other CD. This is spreading alternative. Spreading your positive view into your choice.
What is a Closure Goal? What is study about motivated by funny video or not to complete task?
Motivated to obtain quick closure if we are operating under time pressure or find the task to be tedious. May freeze our thinking when come to what we think is a good enough conclusion. Increases errors and biases like heuristics, fundamental attribution error.

Study- Some P’ motivated to get task done by telling them after they will do much funner task and some not, told would listen to boring lecture. P’s motivated for quick closure showed exaggerated correspondence bias (even though know women had to do talk). P’s motivate to avoid closure decreased in correspondence bias.
What is a Mood-Congruent Judgment? What are 2 reasons we make mood congruent judgments? Explain them?
Our judgments tend to by congruent with our moods e.g. if in happy mood will make more happy judgments.

Mood as a Source of Priming: nodes representing happy states are activated through spreading and more likely to retrieve happy states therefore because of availability heuristic.

Mood as Information: using our mood as a direct source of information about our judgments. But impact of mood only affects our judgments if we attribute our mood to what we are making a judgment about. Otherwise may only have spreading activation (source of priming).
How does mood effect Persuasion? Study when in happy or sad mood listen to weak or strong argument? What kind of features do we focus on when in bad or good mood.
When in sad mood because using elaborate processing more persuaded by strength of the argument then in happy mood when using heuristics are more affected by source of info, way person looks.
Bad mood focus on central features of argument. Good mood on peripheral features like tone of voice because don't want to lose good mood.
How does mood effect stereotyping? Study P's in happy , sad, or neutral mood and read about Hispanic or white student accused of misdemeanor.
Happy mood more likely to use heuristics and then more likely to stereotype. Less likely to stereotype in sad mood.
Study- P’s put into happy mood, some neutral, sad mood. Then read a hearing of an alleged student’s misdemeanor (he was either white or Hispanic). P’s in neutral mood were not influence by student’s category membership. P’s in happy mood said Hispanic guiltier. P’s sad reduced stereotyping.
How does mood influence Processing? When in bad and good mood what are we motivated to do?
Mad mood see something wrong, more effort into processing reduces negative mood.
Good mood everything ok so put less effort in processing.

Bad mood motivated to get out of bad mood so through self into distraction.
Good mood motivated to stay in good mood so don't do work.
How does mood influence the cognitive strategies we use? Fundamental Attribution Error...
Good mood- low cognitive effort, category information (stereotype)- dispositional factors (fundamental attribution error)- Decision based on Source Characteristic's (weak argument).
Bad mood- high cognitive effort, individuating information (don't stereotype)- situational factors (no FAE)- Argument Strength.
What is Automaticity? 4 horsemen?
1. Awareness
lack of conscious awareness of process.

2. Intention
lack of control of starting up the process.

3. Efficiency
low amount of cognitive effort needed.

4. Controllability
Inability to control (stifle or stop) the process when it has started.
How are automaticity and control related? 7 ways?
1. Multitasking
2. Orienting
3. Delegation
4. Regulation
5. Intrusion
6. Disruption
7. Automatization
What is multitasking? Example?
Automatic and controlled process occur in parallel e.g. listening to music (automatic) and talking to friend (controlled).
What is Orienting? Example?
Automatic process launches a controlled process e.g. driving a car and monitoring road (automatic), see car in way and swerve (controlled).
What is Delegation? Example?
controlled process launches an automatic process e.g. turning on the radio (controlled) and listen to radio (automatic).
What is Regulation? Example?
Controlled process that overrides an automatic process e.g. stereotype activated automatically but override it by not applying stereotype.
What is Intrusion? Example?
Automatic process overrides controlled process e.g. iconic processing, trying to stop thinking of bears (controlled), then all you can think of is bears (automatic).
What is Disruption? Example?
Automatic process is turned into controlled process e.g. undoing bike lock (automatic) but then trying to think of combination (controlled) makes it difficult to remember.
What is Automatization? Example?
Controlled process is transformed into an automatic process e.g. learning to ride bike (controlled) then can ride bike (automatic).
What are the three ways Automaticity can effect us? What is an example of each?
1)Automatic Concept Activation
-Semantic Priming Task (show word/prime doctor, backward mask, then target word he, P's respond if he is male or female. Doctor prime male so faster at responding male).
2)Automatic Evaluation
-Affective Priming Task (show word spider, backward mask, then respond if rainbow is positive or negative).
3)Automatic Behavior
-interrupting experimenter study and old/walking down hall study.
Do automatic evaluations represent unconscious attitudes? Study about Bogus Pipeline?
P's fill explicit measure of prejudice where they are told either the study is accurate and senses lying, inaccurate can't tell or nothing. Then P's do an implicit measure to see what they really think without them knowing. P's who were told that measrue could tell if lying were more accurate then other two groups about their level of prejudice (correlated higher to implicit measure did after). Shows that our automatic evaluations are conscious.
Are automatic evaluations extremely stable? Study about P's exposed to admired or not black and white then measure prejudice?
P's did implicit measure of prejudice before. Then shown either admired black and disliked white info, admired white and disliked black, and flowers and insects. Then did explicit measure of of prejudice. P's shown admired black and disliked white had change to less prejudice then those shown disliked black and insects the same.
How does behavior get automatically affected? Study with P's primed with rude and then have to talk to instructor. Study with primed old and hall? Study with primed with back or white faces, 130th trial error and start over?
P's do sentence unscrambing that primes them with neutral, polite, or rude words. Then told to see instructor who is in conversation. P's primed with polite wait, rule interrupt, and neutral in middle.

P's primed with old or neutral then walk down hall. P's primed with old walked slower.

Study with primed with back or white faces while down boring task of saying odd or even dots on page, on 130th trial error and start over. P's primed with black faces get hostile, white less hostile.
What factors limit automatic behavior? 2.
1)Concreteness of Prime
diff primes have diff effect. more concrete (professor) then more effect then less concrete (Einstein).

2)Strength of Association Between Concepts
how strong are they related in memory e.g. elderly slow.
Can the subliminal presentation of stimuli affect complex social behaviours? Study on Self-help tapes? Or Flash popcorn in movie? How about study where P's hungry and thirsty then priming thirsty and saw add?
Both do noting.

P's told not to eat or drink. Then primed with word thirst or nothing. Then all saw adds for superquencher-thirst quencher, power pro-restoring electrolytes...and had to choose coupons for them. When P's primed with thirst, more chose superquecher the thirst quencher.
What 2 things are needed to promote subliminal persuasion?
Motive to pursue the goal
e.g. hunger or thirst.

Priming of Goal Related Cognitions
e.g. thinking of hunger or thirst?
What is Ironic Processes of Control? What is the process?
The more we try to suppress a thought, the more it plagues us.

Automatic Target Search: search for unwanted thoughts, is unconscious and automatic.
Controlled Distractor Search: Look for thoughts to distract and replace, conscious and effortful.
What is the study on ironic processes of control. P's told not to think of skinhead??
P's write easy on skinhead, some told not to think about skinhead stereotypes other told nothing. Then after easy told to meet skinhead in room but he was not there just stuff. P's told to suppress stereotype sat farther away.
What is a real life example how motivation and mental capacity effect automatic and controlled processes. Study of cops reaching for gun if black guy? Weapon identification task?
Cops shot back guy who was reaching for wallet. When low capacity in a rush and high motivation shooting is big deal will have automatic reaction to black guy which is to shoot. What have automatic association between black and weapon as seen in Weapon identification task.
Study on actual shooting behavior of cops and automatic priming of black. What happened after 160 trials?
50 cops did shooting test. Cops more likely to shoot unarmed suspect if black and more likely to not shoot armed white men. After 160 trials bias in shooting unarmed black suspect decreased.
What is prejudice, discrimination, and stereotyping?
Affect - prejudice.
Behavior - discrimination.
Cognition - stereotyping.
What is a stereotype said to be?
Overgeneralized belief about a group of people (Ashmore & DelBoca)

“Cognitive structures that contain our knowledge, beliefs, and expectations about social groups” (Hamilton & Sherman)
Does a member of a culturally stereotyped group automatically activate that stereotype among individuals?

Devine’s Dissociation Model (1989) says? Automatic versus Control?
What are the 3 experiments she uses to prove this. What is the Scale she uses?
What is the criticism of Devine's Model?
Yes they occur for everyone.

Automatic Process: well learned through repeated activation and equal for everyone in a culture.
Controlled Process: intentional responses different depending on a persons motivation and level of prejudice.

Devine uses Modern Racism Scale.
First P's are assessed into low and high prejudice and questioned about negative cultural stereotype of Africans. They both reported the same stereotypes knowledge.
Second low and high prejudice P's primed with 20 versus 80% related African primes (lazy, Jazz..). Then all rated Donald's ambiguous behavior. All P's low and high when exposed to 80% prime rated him as more hostile.
Third P's hihg and low in prejudice labeled Africans with either negative or non negative labels. Low prejudice P's used less negative and more positive labels. Are able to override our negative stereotypes.

Modern Racism Scale is not accurate. Stereotyped primes were inappropriate: Harlem, jazz. Will use prime.
How does the Alternative Model of Stereotyping differ to Devine's?
There are individual differences in automatic processing to a matter of degree. Controlled processing is matter of motivation to control prejudice same as Devine's.
Explain the Alternative Model of Stereotyping Study? What was changed?
Instead of priming with words Jazz used faces of black people in priming task. Black and white P's saw back face, then backward mask, then respond if spider is negative or positive. If black face is seen negative then shorter to say spider is negative. White P's black faces made negative words quicker to respond to. Black P's took longer to respond to negative words. White and Africans experience different automatic reactions to black faces. Individual difference in white P’s, some were very negative and speeded up reaction time a lot and some were less negative. Last phase 10 minute interaction with African person. P’s who showed more negative automatic reactions to black faces also were more negative to black person.
Can Stereotype Activation require Effort? What is study with Asian or White holding up cards while rehearing numbers?
i.Study- half P’s made cognitively busy by rehearsing 8 digit number while doing word completion task. They had to watch a video of either Asian or White person holding a word fragment P’s had to complete e.g. S_Y. Cognitively busy P’s exposed to Asian assistant did not generate any more stereotypic word completions then those exposed to white assistant. P’s not cognitively busy did generate stereotypic completions when exposed to Asian. Cognitive business can disrupt spontaneous activation of stereotypes.
Can Stereotype Activation be Inhibited? How, example? Study with Asian eating with chopsticks or lipstick?
When come across someone who belongs to more than one stereotyped group, may activate one while inhibiting another.

i.Study- saw pic of Chinese women wither eating noodles with chopsticks to highlight Chinese stereotype or putting on lipstick to highlight women stereotype. P’s then rated Chinese woman on dimensions characteristic of woman and Chinese. P’s saw lady eating with chopsticks rated her on dimensions of Chinese and P’s saw lady with lipstick rated her on dimensions of woman and inhibited Chinese stereotype.
Can Suppressed Stereotypes Rebound? Study of P's told to write about skinhead and then lexical decision task?
Iconic reversal can be found with stereotypes.
i.Study- first phase, showed P’s pictures of male skinhead and they write a brief description of typical day in his life. Half P’s told to suppress the stereotype of skinhead and other half told nothing. Phase two, P’s told to suppress stereotype did so in their papers. Then both groups asked to do a lexical decision task. P’s who were told to suppress the skinhead stereotype were faster at responding to words related to skinheads.
Can Mental Capacity effect Stereotype Application? Study with morning or evening people and Hispanic or white accused?
1.Study- P’s classified as either morning or evening people and then tested in either morning, afternoon, or evening. P’s read about cases involving the alleged misconduct of college students, and had to evaluate the student’s guilt. Students were said to be Hispanic accused for attacking a roommate, and White accused of cheating. Morning P’s relied on stereotype only in afternoon and evening. Evening P’s relied on stereotype only in morning.
What is Attributional Ambiguity? Study about black and white make friendship with white person either blinds up or down?
Victim of discrimination is uncertain about positive and negative feedback-can be hard to interpret.

i. Study- black and white P’s told would develop a friendship with each other. Told then their partner had already arrived, sitting in next room, partner was always said to be white. Rom had one way mirror and some P’s told partner could see them other told that blinds were up. P’s then did measure of self-esteem and answered their likes and dislikes which was taken to white “friend” in other room to see if he likes them. P’s were then told that either this friend really likes them or not. The finally P’s did questionnaire to tap into their positive and negative feedback. Black P’s whose partner’s saw them through one way mirror thought prejudice played role in partners reaction to not liking them whereas black. Self-esteem test was not affected because attributed their not liking them to prejudice. P’s whose partner’s didn’t see them had no excuse when partner didn’t like them. Their self-esteem was lowered. Black P’s who got positive feedback when partner could see them didn’t have boost in self-esteem because said niceness was due to prejudice. Black P’s whose partner didn’t see them their self-esteem did increase because no other excuse.
What is Stereotype Threat? Study about blacks and white told that verbal test will be either diagnostic or not then did verbal test? Asian women did math test questions reminded them about Asian, Women, or nothing.
Does WM mediate performance when under stereotype threat?
Resulting fear and anxiety from being stereotyped can interfere with performance.

i.Study- black and white P’s who are Stanford undergrads did verbal test that was very hard. Half P’s told would get feedback of their level of intelligence from the test (designed to enhance stereotype threat) and other half told feedback would just show them what test was about (designed to minimize threat). All P’s then took the same test. Back P’s told that would get feedback about intelligence did much worse then white P’s told the same. No difference when no stereotype threat.

ii.Study- Asian women did math test questions reminded them about Asian, Women, or nothing. Asians good at math so this enhance P's performance, Women questions made P's do worst performance and nothing said was in middle.
Can Stereotypes be Changed? Study with boys camp split into groups. What are the 4 things needed for greatest likelihood of reducing prejudice?
i. Study- Robber’s Care experiment by Sherif: P’s were white will-adjusted boys that didn’t know each other. All lived together at a camp. Then split into two groups and made bond in their groups. Then brought groups together and had competitions, treasure hunts, and sports to increase hostility. Now that groups saw each other as “stinkers” made them spend time together. Didn’t help at all. Then made them work together on common goal, fixing broken water supply and renting movie together. Didn’t immediately help, slowly over time two groups became less hostile. Similar boys with no prior hostility took a while to reduce hostility!

1) have equal status.
2) personal interaction.
3) active cooperation.
4) support from authorities.
Why are stereotypes so hard to change- 3 reasons?
1)Interpretation (Ultimate Attribution Error)
2)Self-Fulfilling Prophecy
What is the The Ultimate Attribution Error? How do we attribute outgroup and ingroup members behaviors?
Differential pattern of attribution for the positive and negative behaviour of outgroup members.

Attributions for Ingroup Members
-Postive -internal factors
-Negative -external factors
Attributions for Outgroup Members
-positive -external factors
-Negative -internal factors
What is the Self-fulfilling prophecy in relation to stereotyping?
-Treat target poorly because stereotype.
-Target behaves poorly in response.
-negative stereotype confirmed.
-automatic activation of negative stereotype in you so next time the cycle continues again.
What is subtyping? Example? 3 ways to reduce subtyping?
view stereotype disconfermation as an exception. A carpenter is also a Harvard grad, so the carpenter must be a special type of carpenter, not typical.

1) moderate disconfermation is best, more exaggerated the easier to subtype.
2) disconfermation person should be viewed as uncharacteristic in some other way.
3) exposure to many disconferming group members.
What is the recent work on Changing Stereotypes? Negation Training? How many trials did it take to start to work? How about trying to restructure the way we categorize?
P's respond yes to non-stereotypical things and no to stereotypical. Then do measure of stereotype activation. Found that negation training causes less facilitation by stereotype. Took 300 trials.

Instead of looking at ingroup and outgorup, see that you are both part of larger group. Found evidence for this.
What is False Consensus? Study about P's wearing sign Repent? What is Pluralistic Ignorance? Study Princeton students surveyed in sep and dec? What is False Uniqueness? Example?
a.False Consensus: overestimate commonality of ones attitudes. Study- P’s asked to put on sandwich board that says “Repent” and walk around campus. Half P’s agreed to wear sign, half didn’t. P’s who agreed to wear sign estimated 63% of peers would wear sing. P’s who wouldn’t wear sign said 23% would wear sign.

b.Pluralistic Ignorance: group norms exist, believe others except it. Underestimate how common attitude is. Study- Princeton students are known to drink a lot, the norm. Second year students were surveyed about their belief and the norm of drinking in September and December. In September men and women revealed pluralistic ignorance. In December men had brought own attitude in line with norm, actually liked drinking more. Women had not changed and felt alienated.

c.False Uniqueness: underestimate commonality of one's attitude to feel unique. Example- I like Indie rock, no one else likes it so I am special.
What is our Knowledge of Social Distribution? Study asking P's what their peers like, dislike....?
Study- students asked about beliefs about distributions of a wide range of attitudes and behaviors among their peers. Had to say how many of 100 friends would do this… The students were pretty accurate about peers reactions and distributions. Some systematic biases: clear false consensus effect, correlation between P’s own belief and estimate of average. We tend to be more accurate about familiar groups.
Is our impression of someone based on sum of all traits known about them or is our impression of someone based on the average of all traits known about them? What about negative traits? Average traits (.5)? Central and peripheral?
-Research supports the weighted average model.
-negative traits hold a greater weight. Someone is 5 nice things 1 bad, bad is given big weight.
-Average traits take away from very good traits. 1+1/2=1..but 1+1+.5/3= .83!
-Central traits exert stronger influence on overall impression, infer additional characteristics.
-Peripheral traits do not exert as strong impact on impression.
What is an Implicit Personality Theories? Example?
Beliefs about what traits or characteristics tend to go together. Similar to a schema! Example is birth order and personality traits we are expected to have.
What is the supposed Knowledge about the Consistency of Traits?
Traits have temporal stability and cross-situational consistency. If trait not consistent in these ways it is meaningless.
What is the Actual Consistency of Traits? Study about elementary school kids and situations they could lie, steel, cheat? Study on adults friendliness in one situation and another?
-Cross-Situational Consistency is Low and temporal Consistency is High.
-Study- created situation where thousands of elementary school children had the opportunity to cheat, lie, steel…Made so children thought they wouldn’t get caught. Temporal stability was high, children stole in one situation would also steel in that same situation again. Cross-situational consistency low, when stole from teacher, couldn’t say they would lie to teacher.

-Study- Found same thing with adults. Friendliness from same situation to another is somewhat high, and from one situation to another is low.
What is the Power of Aggregation? Example?
-pooling together and averaging. Correlation between any two behaviors is low; the correlation between two aggregates of behavior is high!
-Example: e.g. the average of your talkativeness in many situations can predict how talkative you are on average.
What is the Fundamental Attribution Error? What is it similar too? Example?
-Underestimating the situational effects and overestimating the dispositional effects.
-Correspondence Bias: think peoples underlying dispositions correspond to their behavior.
-turned in lost wallet so must be nice.
Do we Spontaneously Infer Traits ? Study of librarian who carrying someones groceries then do cue task? What about another way to test spontaneous inference of traits?
-We spontaneously infer traits from behavior.
-Study- P’s given series of sentences each describing a behavior implying a trait but not saying the trait (librarian walked ladies groceries to her car). Then after a distracter task were asked to recall as many sentences as possible. Some P’s given cues of the trait the sentence implied (helpful), some given word directly related to the actor (book), and some given no cue. P’s getting cue of book and P’s given trait cue had same effect and both were better at remembering sentences then P’s given no cure. Trait stored alongside the behavior and inferred spontaneously.
-Lexical decision task. Read about someone tripping, then should be faster to react to clumsy as a word.
Why Do We Overestimate Consistency of traits?
1. Covariation detection
-coding instances is hard to biases slip in when covariation detecting.

2. Memory Effects
-see initial trait correctly, then remember based on current.

3. The Effects of Our Presence
-People behave different around us.

4. Cultural Influences
-Western emphasis on traits.
How should we Redefining Traits?
-Consistency of the inconsistency! My pattern of inconsistency is stable, different from yours.
-Example: Am I extroverted? Vanessa and extroversion, at parties, friends, lectures, consistent in the inconsistency.
How does the Self evolve?
Self-concept develops around 2 years of age.
1. Concrete and Observable.

2. As adults it becomes Abstract and Psychological.
Why do we have a multifaceted, complex definition of self? 3 reasons? Example of each?
1)Managerial function: organize our behavior and help us to plan for the suture or execute things e.g. lose weight, can't eat, regulate self...
2)Organizational function: acting as a schema that helps us interpret and recall information about ourselves and the social world e.g. physical fitness important so how do I see chocolate cake?
3)Emotional function: helping us determine our emotional response e.g. honesty is important, so when people life to me I get upset.
What are the two dimensions of self-knowledge?
Define Self-Schema? How does it help processing?
-A self-schema is an integrated set of memories, beliefs, attitudes about the self.
-Helps process info about self and others.
-Having a rich self-schema on a particular trait should...? Example?
-Enhance the processing of info related to that trait.
-Example- very introverted, have lots of memories of this, beliefs about this in certain situations.
Study, independent/dependent P's asked about traits and reaction time?
Study- independent/dependent P's classified as schematic or aschematic. Then said either yes or no to traits related to independence or dependence. Schematic P's faster at reacting to independent traits but said yes to equal number or independent and dependent traits. Something special about independent people.
Study, high schematic men on masculinity and low asked to identify meaningful units of masculine behavior in video of male student?
High schematics (men who saw self very masculine) tended to code larger units then aschematics. No difference in irrelevant behavior coded. Suggests breaking up behaviors disrupts masculinity making it more aschematic.
What are the implications of having low self-complexity? 3 things? What is the study on college students and sorting traits and self-esteem? Implications of high self-complexity?
1) More neurotic.
2) Lower self-esteem.
3) Unaware of internal state.

Study- Low self-complex students had more overlap in traits. High self-complex had less overlap.

-When have high self-complexity can protect self-esteem because one domain won't interfere with another.
What is self-esteem? Whats the diff between high and low self-esteem and self-serving stratgeis? Study about HSE and LSE P's put in diff room then parter and told they are filling out negative things about you? Partner/relationship enhancement, closeness?
-Overall assessment of one's worth as a person.
-HSE people more likely to act and feel in ways to make them feel better.

Study- HSE P's under threat of relationship enhanced partner and relationship more. LSE P's under threat idealized parter less and felt less close.
What is the Organization of Self-Knowledge?
The actual self: who you are.

The ideal self: who you want to be.

The ought self: who you believe you should be.
What is the Self-Discrepancy Theory? Selves? Goals and emotional consequences?
-focusing on different selves will make us focus on different goals.

1. Focusing on one’s IDEAL self entails a focus on promotion goals – the desire to achieve one’s hopes and aspirations.

Focus on ideal self = Promotion goals: striving for positive outcome.
Failure = sadness and dejection.

2. Focusing on one’s OUGHT self entails a focus on prevention goals – obligation carries idea that one will be punished for failing

Focus on ought self = Preventation goals: striving to avoid negative outcome.
Failure = anxiety and agitation.
Which Knowledge Do We Seek? Self-Verification or Self-Enhancement?
-Dating couple - self-enhancement. Married couples - Self-verification.
-Depends on dimension being measured.
-Depends what we focus on, strengths is ok to be enhanced, weaknesses want self-verification.
-How certain about a characteristic, I AM funny want verification.
-High consequences of being inaccurately evaluated are high want verification.
-If we think we can change want enhancement, I can be that person you think. If can't change get upset. I can't be that good.
Study on self-verification. P's with positive or negative self view given + or - feedback from someone then asked to choose a parter?
P's with negative self view chose parter that viewed them negatively. P's positive chose partner viewed them positively.
Study on self-enhancement. Dating P's who use self-enhancement have what kind of relationship?
Have more stability and satisfaction.
What is the Self-Evaluation Maintenance Theory? What happens when threatened? What are our options 3?
-Being threatened by other's behavior depends on the closeness and personal relevance of other individuals behavior.
-When feel threatened motivated to restore self-esteem.

1) Distance ourself from person.
2) Change relevance of threat to self-definition, not that important to me.
3) Change performance relevant to other person, try harder or cut other person down.
Study- two male friends put in separate room to do either game or IQ test. Were able to help friend or stranger?
P's doing IQ test (high self-relevant) helped their friend less and stranger more. P's doing game (low self-relevant) helped friend more and stranger less.
Study on first year or forth year accounting students. Read story about 4th year accounting student who either was winning awards and great (superstar) or no target?
-1st year P's had higher self rating of career success when reading about superstar because inspired and not physically close to the 4th year.
-4th year P's had lower self-rating when reading about Superstar because felt that it was less attainable because so close to that Superstar 4th year.
What are the cultural difference in Western and many Asian Cultures?
The Western cultures are independent or Individualistic.
The Asian cultures are collectivist or interdependent.
What would an independent self and culture pic look like. How about dependent?
Independent = little overlap.
Dependent = lot of overlap.
What is an independent view of the self? What about interdependent? Examples of Each?
Independent: I like chocolate...
1) emphasis on internal thoughts feelings and action.
2)independent unique emphasized.
Interdependent: eat chocolate if that whats I am given...
1)emphasis on connection of thoughts feelings and actions to others.
2)cooperation and interdependence emphasized.
Study asking Indian or Americans if they are Similar to Nancy or is Nancy similar to them?
-How similar is Nancy to you?
Indian students say less similar.
-How similar are you to Nancy?
American students say less similar.
Study on European Cnd born English speaking, Chinese Cnd born Chinese speaking, Chinese born English speaking, or Chinese born Chinese speaking? Varied language took test in. Tested them on private statements, collectivist statement, and references to others.
-Chinese born tested in Chinese had most references to others, most collectivist statements, and lest private statements.

-All others had same amount of collectivist statements. Less references to others and more private statements.
Can we find evidence of cultural differences in the explanation of behaviour (correspondence bias) by looking at the media? What does this mean for traits? What are changes with age?
Yes: Chinese papers reported more situational causes and US papers reported more dispositional causes.

-Western cultures have a greater belief in consistency of traits.

-Attributional tendencies of cultures increase with age. Older we get the more dispositional attributes are made in Western...
Should we expect cross-cultural differences in self-enhancement? Study on Better then average effect?
Yes: Seeing self as better then average is a European Canadian and somewhat Asian Canadian trait. Japanese show no self-enhancement regardless of trait value.
What does self-enhancement accomplish for Independent self view? What does self-enhancement accomplish for the interdependent self-view?
Independent self:
1) To attend to, elaborate positive parts.
Interdependent self:
1) To fit in and maintain harmony.
2) More difficult to see relevance here.
Is Self-enhancement Universal?
What types of goals (self-discrepancy theory) do different cultures have? How do they react to feedback, success, failure.
Independent culture = promotion focus: pursuit of ideal self.

Interdependent culture = prevention focus: avoidance of loss, ought self.

After success: North Americans persist longer.
After failure: Japanese persist longer.
How could different cultural backgrounds affect the dissonance effect? Study P's from individual and collectivist cultures rate 10 CD's, then have to choose between 5th and 6th. Then got feedback on choice (positive, negative).
Normally see spreading activation where CD that you choose is liked much more showing that you had dissonance.

-Canadians showed this pattern.
-Japanese didn't experience dissonance.
-when Japanese got negative feedback said made wrong choice.
-When Canadians got negative feedback heightened dissonance.
Will individuals from interdependent cultures show dissonance when making a choice for a friend? Study P's rated food dishes then selected coupons for self or friend? Rating of dished after?
Yes: Asians liked dishes more they selected coupon for when choosing for friend meaning they have same amount of dissonance as Canadians when choosing for self.