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73 Cards in this Set

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What is Social Cognition?
Focus on how minds work - but specifically about the social world.
Study of how people make sense of the social world.
How we perceive, represent, interpret, and remember information about ourselves and others.
History of Social Cognition? 5 stages.
Psychoanalysis (Freud).
Behaviorism (skinner/Pavluv).
Cognitive Revolution.
Hot Cognition.
Automaticity of Social Life.
What is a Concept?
Schema...mental representation of a category with objects that belong together.
Don't have to represent reality.
Usually are connected to reality.
What are 3 kinds of concepts?
1 Category- similar meaning and function.
2 Stereotype- link attributes to social categories.
3 Scripts- how a situation should occur.
What are 5 crucial functions of concepts?
i. Classification: we classify different objects as the same e.g. dog or cat.
ii. Inferring Additional Attributes: use concept to go beyond info given e.g. person is a doctor, also means well-educated…
iii. Guiding Attention and Interpretation: provide a framework for making sense of incoming info e.g. concept lecture tells us to sit and listen, what a teacher is…The concepts we impose on events determines the meaning we extract from them.
iv. Communication: allow the speaker to omit details making communication more efficient.
v. Reasoning: can combine existing concepts to explain new objects e.g. metrosexual.
What are the 5 ways to activate concepts?
i. Stimulus features: constrain concept application e.g. can’t say wrinkly person is young.
ii. Salience: context make some aspects more salient e.g. solo black person in room of white people; will classify black person, back instead of man…
iii. Priming: any experience or procedures that bring a particular concept to mind e.g. reading about race relations, see a black person and think of him as African America. Priming can be unconscious.
iv. Chronic Accessibility: concept that is viewed as self-defining and important or if they figure prominently in many of one’s descriptions of other people e.g. intelligence is chronically accessible so classify other people as smart or stupid. Two people with diff CA will judge same person diff.
v. Goals: able to activate or suppress particular concepts in serving a goal e.g. if wish to appear unprejudiced will suppress negative ethnic stereotype.
Kunda's study on guiding attention and interpretation: does that concept of a person affect your interpretation of their behavior?
Not in situations were actions are clear, but in ambiguous situation take into account stereotype of housewife or construction worker.
Goals-Dependent Activation study by Kunda, Black or white Doctor either threatened P's self-esteem or praised it. Then did lexical decision task. What words were primed?
Those whose self-esteem was threatened by black doctor primed black concepts and faster at lexical decision for black words. Not for white doctor in either threat or praised. Took much longer at lexical decision for black words when black doc praised.
What is a Lexical Decision Task?
Stimulus presented and you judge if it is a word or non-word. Faster to judge a word means word is primed.
What is a Sequential Priming Task?
Present a word, then backward masking, then a target word which you respond to by making a lexical decision. If initial word presented primed lexical decision of target word then there is a relation in your mind between two.
What is the Implicit Association Test?
Tries to see the strength of association between pairs of concepts in your mind. If concepts are related in brain then faster.
- Left hand assigned to two concept e.g. male and strong, and right another two e.g. female and weak. Then a word is flashed in front of you and you respond with the hand you think is associated to the word either female, weak, male, or strong. Faster at decisions that are already associated in your mind.
What are the 3 ways concepts are represented in our mind?
Classical-Model
Probabilistic Model
Theory-Based Model
What is the classical Model of concept representation? What are the criticisms?
Concepts may be defined by a set of necessary and sufficient attributes e.g. only a student if have all attributes of student.

a. Difficulty in specifying defining feature e.g. concept of game has to attributes that are common to all games.
b. Members vary in their typicality e.g. all triangles are not equally representative of the concept triangle. Eleanor Rosch: robin is a better example of a bird than an ostrich.
What is the Probabilistic Model of concept representation- 2 types? What are the criticisms?
An instance belongs to a category if the similarities between the two are above a certain level. Similarity increases as the number of features similar to both increases.
a.The Probabilistic Prototype Model: an abstract list of features that is typical of category members.
b.The Probabilistic Exemplar Model: a category is represented by a set of examples.
Criticism:
a.Classification by similarity alone ignores relations among attributes.
b.What do we count as a critical feature?
c.How do we decide what to base our similarity judgments on?
What is the Theory-Based Model of concept representation? What is the support? What are the criticisms?
Concepts hold causal knowledge that hold them together e.g. fish have gills to breathe underwater.
Support
1) Ad-hoc Combination of Concepts e.g. horse race.
2) Goal-Derived Categories e.g. things to steal makes a category.
3) Expertise can influence categorization e.g. treeologist organizes trees diff then layman.
4) Category Membership can Overrides Similarity e.g. perceptual similarity not most important.
Criticism:
Many features unrelated to theories e.g. Lions mane has no theory for its being part of lion.
How are concepts organized and related to each other in our minds- 2 ways?
i.Associate Network Model: network of nodes that are connected to each other by links. Node represent a feature (attractive), a concept (woman), or a proposition (Dave ate some food). Links can be labeled is-a e.g. the dog is a animal.
ii.Concepts are represented by nodes.
iii.Spreading activation.
iv.Criticism: activation may spread indefinitely.
v.Parallel-Constraint-Satisfaction Model: fixed activation problem by adding in constraints. Nodes can be excitatory, and cause spreading, or inhibitory and cause deactivation of spreading. Concepts are represented by pattern of activation.
What is the Representative Heuristic?
1) Our CATEGORIZATIONS are based on the extent to which an instance represents the category, is it similar to it (Sarah seems similar to our stereotype of Democrats, so she is a Democrat).
2) Our CAUSAL judgments are based in the extent to which an event is representative of the process that generated it (there are 5 heads in a row, the next must be a tail because that resembles the process of random)
What are the 6 types of Representative Heuristics and explain them.
1) Base-rate Neglect
2) The Dilution Effect
3) Conjunction Fallacy
4) Insensitivity to Sample Size
5) Misconceptions of Change (Gambler's Fallacy, Hot Hand)
6) Misconceptions of Regression to the mean
Harold Kelley’s Covariation Model of Attribution, explain?
1.Distinctiveness: does the effect occur only in the presence of one causal candidate?
2.Consistency: does the effect occur repeatedly in the presence of this causal candidate?
3.Consensus: does everyone respond in the same way to this causal candidate?
4.Low distinctiveness, high consistency, and low consensus means attribution is due to internal factors. When all three are high then attribution is due to external factors.
5.People are much less sensitive to consensus! Consensus is base-rates.
What is Base-rate Neglect? Study about engineers and layers? When does it not happen? Study about students read about exam?
1) Judgment based on stereotypes and ignore base-rates. Study: gave P’s description of a group (either 70 engineers and 30 lawyers or 70 lawyers and 30 engineers) and then took a random description of one person from the group. P’s asked the probability the person was an engineer. P’s relied only on representativeness and ignored base-rates either way.
2) But use them when change factors are highlighted. Study gave P’s brief blurb of students and study habits then asked how likely passed an exam given proper base-rate info. P’s used base rates in judgments.
What is the Dilution Effect? Study about Paul given just the name, then adding in other info?
Nondiagnostic information can dilute the impact of other diagnostic information.
Study gave only first name, people judged Paul as more assertive because used stereotype. But when given a short description that had nothing to do with assertiveness, they judged Paul as less assertive.
What is Ignoring Sample Size? Study about large and small hospital with births?
People see large sample sizes just as likely as small ones to vary.
Study gave P’s description of hospital birth norms for boys at 50% then said one varied to 60% a few days. Would a large or small one or both likely to vary? P’s said both the same. Similarity of 50 to 60% boys is the same for both hospitals. But actually small one is more likely to vary.
What is Misconceptions of Chance? The Gambling Fallacy? The hot hand phenomenon?
a. The gambling fallacy, think that when get heads 5 time far more likely to get tails on next flip because that would resemble a random process more. Actually no more likely to get either on any flip.
b. After a couple of successful shots, much more likely to succeed on the next shot. Study found out that shooting steaks are not common. No more likely to get shot after just getting one, its off skill.
What is the Conjunction Fallacy? Example of Linda the Bank Teller?
1) A co-occurrence of two outcomes is seen as more likely to occur than just one of the outcomes occurring on its own.
2) Linda is a Bank teller and a Feminist is seen are more likely than just a Bank teller. In actuality it’s the opposite.
What is the Failure to Understand Regression Toward the Mean?
People scoring at either extreme are expected to regress toward the mean again. We fail to realize that a score might just be an extreme and attempt to invent a causal theory to account for it e.g. why a rooky plays less well in the next year.
What are the Factors that Influence whether you use Heuristics?
1) Knowing about the Domain
a)Clarity of the Sample Space in the Domain
b)Experience with the Domain
2) Contextual Cues
a)influenced by aspects of the problem or the situation that highlight the salience of chance makes us more likely to use base-rates.
What is the Availability Heuristic?
We attempt to bring to mind examples of events whose frequency we wish to determine, and we base our frequency judgments on the ease of imagining such examples, their availability.
What are the 5 examples of Availability Heuristics?
1) False or Difficulty of Retrieval
2) Salience
3) Selective Exposure
4) Egocentric Bias
5) One-sided Questions
How does salience effect the availability heuristic? Study with people facing different speakers? How does this relate to actor observer bias? What are Dread Risks? What happens in the study when people tried to avoid it?
The salience of info can determine whether we notice it.
Study- 2 P’s were seated so they both saw one person more in the debate. Then asked who influence the conversation more in the debate. The person the P was looking at more, more salient, they thought controlled the debate.
Actor-Observer effect: my situation is salient to me, so attribute my problems to the situation, but someone else’s situation is not salient to me so attribute their problems to their personality.
Low probability of occurring, but high consequences when it does occur e.g. September 11th. Avoiding dread risks can cause lives. People drive instead of flying and more car accidence.
How does ease or difficulty of retrieval effect the availability heuristic? Study with 6 or 12 examples? What happens when ease isn't relevant-study with low and high diagnosticity?
Study- asked P’s to come up with examples (either 6 or 12) where they behaved assertively or unassertively. Those who were asked for 12 assertive examples rated themselves as less assertive or 12 unassertive examples rated themselves as more assertive then those who came up with 6 examples. The ease in which we recall examples, it was hard to recall 12 assertive answers, so I must not be assertive, influences our concepts.
When ease isn't relevant (low diagnosticity-don't pay attention to how hard or easy it was to come up with answer) content has more of an effect. P's listing 12 examples of assertiveness though were more assertive then those in 6 example group.
What is the effect of imagination on availability heuristic? Study told to imagine being arrested?
The mere act of imagining events may lead you to view them as more likely.

Study asked P’s to imagine themselves being arrested, then asked how likely they think they will be arrested in the next year. P’s who imagined it thought they would be more likely to be arrested.
What is the effect of explanation on availability heuristic? Study asked P' to explain why firefighter was better being riskier?
The act of explaining a theory makes the subset of one’s knowledge that supports the explained relation highly available and then we rely on the available beliefs to support a choice.

Study asked P’s to explain why a firefighter would be good to be risky. P’s ended up believing a firefighter is better to be risky then those asked to explain why it would be bad to be risky.
What is the effect of one-sided questions on availability heuristic? What happens when asked do you see yourself as shy?
Leading questions can make us focus on one aspect of something and therefore bring to mind things only to support it and bias our concepts.

Do you see myself as shy-so I think of situations where I am only shy and therefore see myself as shy.
What is the effect of Egocentric Bias on availability heuristic? Study asking couples how much work they do around the house? Why does this happen-3 reasons?
Our own contrebutions are more available to us, so give them more weight.
Study asked couples how much work they did around house. Bot thought did more work because more available to them.

Pay more attention to self, and think about self more-repeated processing. Biased Q, how much do YOU contribute.
How does selective exposure effect availability heuristic? Study of P's death judgments and newspaper.
Events in media receive selective exposure, more expsure makes events more available.

Study asked which causes more death and looked at towns newspaper. P's judgments related to their newspaper, thought car accidence more deaths.
What is Anchoring and Adjustment?
Initial starting points, even totally irrelevant ones seem to serve as anchors. As a result our estimates can be biased toward the anchor.
What are 3 examples of Anchoring and adjustment heuristic?
1) Negotiation
2) Sentencing
3) Correspondence Bias
How does Correspondence Bias effect Anchoring Heuristic? Study Anti-Castro Essay?
Over attributing someone’s behavior to an underlying personality disposition. The personality is an anchor and then we don’t adjust enough for the situational influences on behaviors.

Study- P’s watched someone being asked to write a pro-Castro essay or an anti-Castro essay. P’s asked to estimate the writer’s attitude toward Castro. P’s think the pro-Castro essay writers were more pro then the anti-Castro even though they saw they had no choice writing it.
How is Negotiation effected by the Anchoring Heuristic? Buying and selling study?
Study- with buying and selling items. P's given an initial offer as the anchor and the final price is always closer to initial offer.
How is Sentencing effected by Anchoring Heuristic? Law students proposal in sentencing?
Study- P's given exact same crime but law student suggested either 12 or 34 months. P's choices were anchored around the proposed time.
Can we improve/reduce everyday reasoning? Study with students in different sciences?
Learning about these biases can help. Study- Psychology students reasoned the best by 70%, then medical 25%...
What is the Positive-Test Strategy? What are the 3 ways in which the positive-test strategy effects people?
One-sided approach to hypothesis testing, seeking causes that match it.

1) Hypothesis Confirmation in Evaluating others.
2)Hypothesis Confirmation in Evaluating Oneself.
3) Choosing versus Rejecting question.
How does the Positive-Test Strategy effect Hypothesis Confirmation in Evaluating others- 2 ways?
1.Biased memory Search: one-sided searches through relevant memories. Study gave P’s mixed memories (introverted and extroverted) about Jane. When asking if she better to be a real-estate agent, P’s recalled more extroverted than introverted facts. Seemed as though they were asking, “what do I know about Jane’s that is consistent with Being a Librarian or...
2.Biased Evidence Seeking: reliance on the positive-test strategy will often bias us to seek evidence in support. Study gave P’s questions (11 extroverted, 11 introverted, and 5 neutral) to ask a stranger in the room with them to try to see if they were introverted or extroverted. P’s favored questions that matched their hypothesis. Looking for support only.
How does the Positive-Test Strategy effect Hypothesis Confirmation in Evaluating Oneself? Study with happy and sad, and introverted and extroverted?
One-sided recruitment of self-knowledge can influence one’s self-views-availability heuristic.

Study- when asked if P’s were happy, they recruited more happy thoughts and said they were happier then those asked if they were unhappy. Some with introverted or extroverted.
How does the Positive-Test Strategy effect Choosing versus Rejecting?
Direction of the question can influence your judgment. People focus on different aspects when deciding to reject or accept.

Study- gave P’s a list of A and B’s strengths and weaknesses. When asked which they would award custody they chose B, but when asked who should be denied custody they also chose B. When choosing winners we will choose the more complex people because they have more striking reasons to choose them. When choosing losers will also choose more complex people because there are more striking bad reasons to get rid of them.
What are the 3 examples of Covariation Detection? What are the studies that go along with 2 (Rorschach test and homosexuality) and 3 (Small and Large group and reading about 39 individuals saying which group they belonged too).
a.Assessing Covariations from 2X2 Tables: the correct way to assess a 2X2 table is to find out if the ratio of A to B is greater than the same ratio for C to D. Use the whole table. People tend to only take one cell, the supporting hypothesis cell, into account.
b.Illusory Correlations: our prior theories leads us to expect a correlation, we will pay special attention to cases that embody this correlation e.g. it rains whenever I wash the car.
i.Study- on P’s belief with the Rorschach test and homosexuality. Found P’s prior belief that homosexuality was associated with a particular type of response led them to see such an association in the data they observed when in reality there was no such correlation. Saw a positive association even when the actual associations were negative (in the other direction).
c.Stereotype Formation through Illusory Correlation: we pay special attention to rare and distinctive events. When both individuals are distinctive and behavior is rare, together they are especially noticeable e.g. black people and violent acts, it sticks out and we overestimate their frequency.
i.Study- showed P’s two groups, one large, one small. Then read info about 39 individuals (some info about themselves and their group membership). There was no prior correlation between group and positivist of behaviors. However, P’s saw an illusory correlation where the small group performed more bad behaviors and overestimated their frequency.
What are the two examples of Explanation-Based Judgments (putting together various pieces of evidence and weighing them)? Study with presenting case in 2 ways, one better story? What are two best things for explanatory coherence?
a.Story Models in Jury Decision Making: asked P’s to talk out loud as they reached their verdict. P’s described stories detailing what they thought had happened and in them they inferred psychological states and left out info that wasn’t relevant to their story.
i.Study- found that the same evidence presented in an easy constructed story for the prosecution, and difficult for the defense, jurors voted 78% in favor of the prosecution. When reversed the situation, 31% voted for the prosecution.
b.Coherence of Explanations: when faced with alternative views of reality, we choose the one that is most coherent.
i.Explanatory breadth: accounts for more of the evidence.
ii.Simplicity: easier to understand.
What is Counterfactual Thinking? What are 3 factors effecting Counterfactual thinking?
Thinking that involves what ifs, imaging outcomes contrary to what happened.
1) Closeness of Counterfactual to the Actual Event
2) Exception versus Routine
3) Action versus Inaction
How does Closeness of the Counterfactual to the Actual Event effect Counterfactual thinking? What about the study with Mr. T and Mr. C missing their plane? How do we feel?
a.Event Normality: each event provokes a norm, how an event is supposed to happen. The more normal an event is, when an event deviates from that norm, the more abnormal the deviated event will seem. The more abnormal an event seems the stronger one’s emotional reaction e.g. Mr. T and Mr. C are late for their plane. Mr. T is late by only 5 minutes, while Mr. C is late by over 2 hours. Because Mr. T seems more abnormal it is more infuriating. If we need to make only a small number of changes to the event to arrive at the counterfactual one, it seems more regrettable.
What is Anticipatory Regret?
Lead us to avoid actions that might lead to events in which we might regret them.
How does the Exception versus the Routine effect Counterfactual Thinking? Study about Jones being killed on day either leaving work early or on time? What did P's do to the exception?
People are more upset by negative outcomes when these result from exceptional behavior rather than routine behavior.

i.Study gave P’s a story about Mr. Jones. He was killed on his way home from work in one version and the other when he left work early. P’s undid the exception event, went home early, more then adding in that he left home later.
How does the Action versus Inaction effect Counterfactual Thinking? How does short-run versus Long-run effect this?
Feel more regret about our actions in the short-term, but in the long-term feel more regret for our inactions.
i.Study Mr. G lost money through action, whereas Mr. P lost money from doing nothing. P’s felt more regret about Mr. G’s actions. Very opposite when people look back on our lives. Regret not doing things.
What is the Construal Level Theory? (Hint- action in short-term and long-term)
a. Low Temporal Distance (Short-Term): actions are easier to undo.
i. Concrete, they happened so they are easier to work with.
ii. Contextualized, we are aware of the situation.
iii. Goal-irrelevant, we don’t know where our life will take us, what actions that will matter in the long run.
b. High Temporal Distance (Long-Term): inactions are easier to undo.
i. Abstract, can image the situation as being more desirable then you once thought it was.
ii. Decontextualized, don’t remember the reasons and obstacles for why you decided not to do something.
iii. Goal relevant, you know what you want and what actions you needed to take to get there.
What are 2 ways in which we can move counterfactual thinking? How do they effect our feelings?
Upward CF: imagine outcomes that are better make us feel worse.
Downward CF: imagine outcomes that are worse make us feel better.
What are Semantic, Procedural, and Episodic Memory?
1) Things we know about the word, general facts that don't involve our experiences.
2) Skill memory, how to preferm a task e.g. ride a bike.
3) Memory of a specific event e.g. graduation.
What is the sequence we process information?
Stimulus event-encoding-organizing/storage/retrieval-infer/decision-behavioral response.
What are the 2 types of Social Memory? Are there evidence for each?
1) Photographic Memory: recall exact images. No pr little evidence.
2) Reconstructive Memory: tons of evidence.
What are 3 factors of encoding social information?
1) Expectancies -interpretation and attention.
2) Goals.
3) Significance.
What types of events do expectancies influence your interpretation? What is the study proving this (about flirting)?
Ambiguous events.
Study- P's asked if girl is flirting. When event ambiguous P's thought they was or wasn't depending on expectancy and not influenced in non ambiguous situation.
What are two ways expectancies affect our attention at encoding (memory)? 1) Study about P's told woman was waitress or librarian had effect on what remembered? Study about P's given lists of traits some labeled with a job? 2) P's read traits about John, what did they remember most?
i.Expectancy-Congruency Effect: more likely to recall info that is congruent with expectancy.
ii.Study- Half P’s told before video of woman she was librarian and half told she was waitress. P’s more likely to recall info that was consistent with their stereotype of waitress/librarian than they were to recall inconsistent info.
iii.Study- P’s given lists of characteristics of people with some typical of a job (doctor) and some neutral. Some lists were labeled with the job and some didn’t. P’s remembered the most traits consistent with the job when they were given a label, otherwise random memory.
iv.Expectancy-Incongruency Effect: more likely to notice and recall info that violates expectancy.
v.Study- P’s read statements about John, the statements varied in relevance. P’s remembered incongruent info (he got C+) the most.
When will we see congruency effects in memory, and when will we see incongruency effects in memory? Motivation and Capacity??
Congruency effects: when cognitive capacity is low or not motivated to form an accurate impression of someone.
Incongruency effects: when cognitive capacity is high or motivated to form an accurate impression of someone.
How do goals effect expectancies at encoding (memory)? Study about forming impression, memorize info, or meeting person later?
Enhanced memory for events that fit our goals.

i.Study- P’s given info about people that they were told either a) they should to memorize info b) form an impression of this person c) you will meet this person. P’s expecting to meet person had enhanced memory and increased organization of info. Then P’s formed an impression and least is ones told to remember.
How does event significance effect expectancies at encoding (memory)? Why? Study asking P's in different states about 9/11?
Events that are more significant are remembered more, why is unknown.
Study- after 9/11 asked people in New York, California, Hawaii details about the event. P's in New York were most accurate.
What are the 3 factors that effect retrieval.
1) Expectancies.
2) Theories about Stability and Change.
3) Hindsight Bias.
How do expectancies effect retrieval? Study about P's told woman in video was waitress before video or after? Study about Loftus and car accidence?
Selectively retrieve memories that match my expectancy.
i.Study- Half P’s told before video of woman that she was librarian and half told after video she was waitress. P’s still more likely to recall info that was consistent with their stereotype event when told about it after.
ii.Study by Loftus- P’s watched 1 min video of car accident, then asked how par car was going when smashed or contacted the other car. For stronger verb P’s remembered car going faster.
How do Theories about Stability and Change effect retrieval? Study on exaggerated stability P's rated partners one and again later. Study on exaggerating change P's rating selves before study skills training and after. Also projected grades?
We can reconstruct our past attitudes, beliefs, behaviors based on our present ones if we invoke a theory of stability, that we are stable across time. If we invoke theory of change, then think initial attitudes, beliefs, behaviors were different.
Exaggerated Stability:
1) Study- P’s rated personality of their dating partners. Two months later they came back and rated these same attributes about their partner again and were told to try to remember past impressions. P’s recalled impressions that were biased by their current ones e.g. He’s a dog now, I always thought so.
Exaggerating Change:
2) Study- half P’s took study skills program, half (control) didn’t. Before program P’s and control P’s evaluated their study skills. After the program and control P’s rated how much they had changed and to predict the grades they would get now. P’s who took the program thought their skills had improved more than did control P’s and expected higher grades. But in reality, they did no better. P’s who were in the program evaluated themselves as worse before the skills training.
How does Hindsight Bias effect retrieval? Study gave P's story of historical event, some told ending some not? Study showed P's how they did on exam and asked it thats what they thought?
Now that we know the outcome, we have a strong conviction that “I knew it all along.”
1) Study- gave P’s detailed description of a historical or clinical event that could end in several ways. P’s judged the outcome they were informed about as more likely to have happened and that they know it all along than did controls who were not informed of how the events ended.
2) P's given their marks on exam. P's thought they were going to got that mark.
Is hindsight bias related to availability heuristic?
Yes, the events that has happened is available to you so seems like you know it would happen all along.
What are the two ways mood effects memory? Whats the one way mood effects learning? Explain each.
1)Mood Congruent Memory-when mood at recall match content of material increases performance.
Study- induced positive or negative moods in P’s. P’s then read neutral words and wrote autobiographical memories that corresponded to words. P’s experiencing happy mood remembered happy events and vise versa.
2)Mood Dependent Memory-when mood at learning matches mood at test increases performance.
Study- P’s put in good or bad mood then gave P’s some facts to encode. P’s put in same mood again when asked to recall facts were better at recall then those in different moods.
3)Mood Congruent Learning-when mood at encoding matches content of material performance improves.
Study- P's mood altered happy or sad then learn facts that vary in emotional content. P's who were happy at learned recalled more happy facts than those mismatched.
What is study about imagining pics and seeing them? How does this showing problem with Source Memory? What are two problems with source memory?
Study- P’s saw pics of common objects on some trials and on other trials were asked to imagine theses pics again. More often P’s imagined a pic, the more they thought they had seen it.
1) The Sleeper Effect.
2) Imagination and Suggestion.
What is the Sleeper Effect? What is the sleeper effect strongest-4 things?
Attitude change provoked by a discredited communication is greater after a delay than it is immediately.
1) message argument had song impact.
2) discrediting cue had strong impact.
3) discounting cue is processed after the message.
4) recipient have motivation and capacity to process message.
How does suggestion effect false memory? Study of family giving real memories and tested these with false memories?
P’s parents gave memories of P’s when young. P’s were tested of these memories and false memories. When questioned of false memories, 20% of P’s remembered false memories. Large minority.
How does monitoring external effect false memory? What changes do we make? Study on P's listening to three black and white people, then asked who said what?
Study on P's listening to three black and white people, then asked who said what. P's mixed up people of same race but not between races.