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43 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Which come naturally - spoken and/or written language?
Spoken language comes naturally; written language does not
What is spoken language the link between?
Sound and meaning
What is written language the connection between?
Symbol and sound
What are the two basic types of writing?
Logographic and phonographic
What are logograms?
Symbols that represent morphemes or entire words
Which type of writing is the oldest?
Logographic writing - Mesopotamian cuneiform, Egyptian hieroglyphs, and Chinese characters
Does English contain logograms?
Yes, in abbreviations such as &, %, and $
What are the type types of phonographic writing?
Syllabic and alphabetic
What are two examples of syllabic writing?
Japanese and Cherokee
What are petroglyphs?
Scenes painted on stone
Where did the earliest known writing appear and when?
Sumer about five thousand years ago.
How many signs did the Sumers use?
About 900
What is the rebus principle?
Allows a sign to be used for any word that is pronounced like the word whose meaning it originally represented
Give an example of the rebus principle
The word originally used to represent the word gi 'reed', was used to represent a homophonous word with the meaning 'reimburse'
What does hieroglyphs mean?
"Sacred inscriptions" in Greek
What are determinatives?
Signs that indicated the meaning of a word and how the previous signs were to be interpreted
What part of the word did Egyptians not represent?
Vowels
What's the acrophonic principle?
Sounds are represented by pictures of objects whose pronunciation begins with the sound to be represented.
What principle was crucial to the development of true alphabets?
The acrophonic principle
What did the Semitic of ancient Phoenicia do?
Devised a writing system of 22,000 consonantal signs as early as 1000 BC
What did the Greeks do with the PHoenician writing system?
Developed it into a full alphabet: each sign representing one phenome; all phenomes were recorded by a sign
What is boustrophedon?
Writing with the direction reversed at the end of each line
Who did the Romans acquire their alphabet from?
The Etruscans
What are the units of the Chinese system representative of?
Morphemes
- Some one syllable words are truly logographic
- Overhwelming majority of characters consist of two parts
What is a radical?
Provides clues about a morpheme's meaning; Chinese - there are about 200 in contemporary Chinese writing
What are the other components of Chinese that indicate precise pronunciation; (go along with semantic radicals)?
Phonetic determinants
Do phonetic determinants or semantic radicals along suffice to identify the morphemes they represent?
No, neither do
What is pinyin?
A system of writing Mandarin with a modified Latin alphabet
What are the three distinct scripts used in Japanese writing?
Kanji and two syllabaries, (Hiraganan and katakana) - created by modifying Chinese characters
What are Chinese characters called in Japanese?
Kanji
What is the Roman alphabet called in Japanese?
Romaji
Why did Korean abandon Chinese characters?
Korean suffixes could not be easily represented by Chinese writing
What are Chinese characters called in Korean?
hanja
What is orthography?
Set of conventions for representing language in written form
Describe the evolution of English orthography.
- Old English used the same symbol for long and short vowels ~ complications arose when former vowels changed
- End of the fifteenth century, often spelled words to reflect etymological origin, such as debt vs. dette
- By 1700's, English orthography was more or less fixed
What were two factors the confusing orthography system wasn't reformed.
1. People would have difficulty reading books written in traditional orthography
2. There are different dialects, so it would be hard to make correlate phonetics with spelling
What are the three types of linguistic units?
1. Morphemes and words in the case of logographic systems
2. Syllables in the case of syllabaries
3. Consonants and vowels in the case of alphabets
What is prewriting?
Direct representation of objects, such as the cave paintings of Lascaux
Did pictograms provide clues to pronounciation?
No
what is the acrophonic principle?
Sounds represented by pictures of objects whose pronunciation begins with the sound to be represented.
Give an example of an alphabet that employed boustrophedon.
Greek alphabet
What did the Chinese writing system develop out of and what did it eventually come to represent?
Developed out of pictograms that eventually came to represent morphemes.
How much of Korean vocab. is of Chinese origin?
More than half