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38 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
green belt areas
part of Ebenezer Howard's plan for garden cities. A designated around the outside limits of the city where development was not allowed. Saved for agriculture etc. Prevented suburban sprawl.
A problem of congestion on city's roads. So many cars that nobody can move. Creates a problem- emergency vehicles cannot respond. SOLUTION- better planning, mass transit etc.
Urban Mass Transit act
passed in 60's. Cities need mass transit to eliminate gridlock. Fed gov't helps cities to pay for new systems. Try to eliminate personal car use in the city. EX. D.C. metro
Formal Sector
"on the books" employment. There are records. steady pay. Opposite of informal or "off the books" work. In 3rd world, often are women, with low paying jobs. Non unionized, low skill jobs that used to be done in advanced economies like the US (teddy bears)
Tipping point
terms used to talk of residential segregation. Whites in neighborhood feel there are too many African Americans in area, becomes a "black neighborhood," feel pressure to leave/vacate.
No Growth Movement
particularly in CA. Parallels ideas of Ebenezer Howard- cities neighborhoods can get too big! Community sets limits in development or the # of people entering etc.
technique alegidly used by realators. They create a panic in white residents of a neighborhood. Tell them that neighborhood is about to become black, convince them to sell their house.
squatter settlements
not enough housing for amount of people that try to move to city in 3rd world. They make housing on the edge of the town out of whatever they can find. Creates a health hazard, and is difficult to regulate.
urban homesteading
70's. cities realized they had a lot of vacant property. Encouraged people to buy lots for very cheap. deal- they fixed it up, then after five years were given the deed.
bedroom community
strictly residential. No business/industry within the neighborhood. Not really the ideal setup
suburban sprawl
ability of developers to buy up rurual land, and without much planning, create housing. Creates a number of problems- most notebly, the county ends up having to pay for the roads/water etc.
urban growth machine
relates to the powe elite/pluralist debate. Extension of elitist model. Cities are run by elite group of people- politicians, media- see as an economic arena. These people get together and decide how to improve/grow the city.
theory of state managerialism
ex. DELDOT. independant source of power w/in the state. Try to constantly push their own agendas. Usually, it's non-elected officials whose career lasts through several administrations
interst groups
represent ethinic/racial/social groups. Have political mission/goals. Push certain specific agendas. Can become powerful voting blocs.
political fragmentation
severe problem! the great variety of jurisdictions covering one area. confusing web b/c you often have to go through more than one step. The policies of the different governing groups do not always agree 100%.
highway lobby
interest of auto manufacturers who are interested indeveloping highways/interstates for their own personal gains. Interfears with mass transit. creates a conflict of interest
over urbanization
people come flooding into the city, but it isn't preapared to handle that many people. Espeically a problem in 3rd world countries. high unemployment.
new town planning
60's. often on same model as Ebenezer Howard. didnt' have mix of social classes etc, but had a vareity of things included in community. res, business, agricultrue. Tried to answer the quetsion: "what do residents need most?"
strategy that city gov't use to solve gov' financial crisis. outsource jobs like garbage collection to private companies. saves money, but sometimes hurts quality of servie.
Dependancy Theory
relationships between 3rd and 1st world countries creates dependancy. 1st world countries go in and take raw material. 3rd world doesn't develop its own industry/economy. EXPLOITATION OF 3rd WORLD.
America residentially is segregated. Theory that this is not accidental- a product of the gov't (FHA etc.) policy. Apparently 90% of the country is racially segregated.
Le Corbusier
rather than having lots of small cities, he thought that having a large cities was ideal and efficient. Big skyscrapers, high concentration of people. Most people would live in apartment style housing. Popular in Europe.
Frank Lloyd Wright
american architect (dispised suburbs) Had an idea for a new society, a decentralized city called "broadacre" no clusturing needed. Each family has it's own homestead at least one acre, engage in agriculture. superhighways would allow people to comute to work in 1 hr. decentralization would lead to diversity and excitement.
Columbia, MD
a planned community. Housed a variety of social classes in apartment style to 10 acre lots. clustered into 9 small towns, seperated by 3500 acres of permanent open space. Critique: expensive. does not disprse pop. well. Employment centers were not sucessful. few big business/industry were attracted. eventually became a bedrom community.
City Beautiful Movement
A late nineteenth century movement to rebuild and beautify cities, often by constructing monumental Greek-revival buildings in prominent central locations. They thought that by making things pretty, urban problems would disapear.
Social Disorganization
An early explanation for poverty and social problems. Social ties and mechanisms for regulating bahavior of individuals breaks down.
The theory that political power is distributed among numerous competing groups that form temporary coalitions around specific issues without becoming permanently aligned.
power elite
A theory that political power is concentrated among a small number of relatively cohesive groups. decided everything amongst themselves.
Ebenezer Howard
looked upon the industrial city of london and athought society could do better. wanted new, smaller cities. Thought cities were too big. They needed natural spaces.
Richard Daley
The last boss of Chicago. Ran the city with a political machine. Created a powerful network of voters and allies. Developed the city by building/expanding and creating new jobs. Downfall- was unable to keep order when 2 big issues caused disorder: race, war.
zoning laws
gov't seperates the land into uses: commericial, residential industrial. Can also set more specific criteria. Gives them the power to control who lives where, what type of peole they'd like to exclude etc.
Good Gov't Movement
Native white americans were alarmed at the politcal use of ethnic groups. Fetl thtat votes were being exhanged for jobs/food etc. Set up seperate plitical jurisdictions "good gov't"- suburban and non-partisan.
Floyd Hunter
elitist. belived that small elite in major institutions determined the maj decisions. belived change is gradual, and may be brought about when elites change. "the reputational approach"
Robert Dahl
political scientist. pluralist. wrote "who governs". Thought that voluntary associations and political parties acted as counterweights to power of wealthy. "no one person governs"
fictional name for a community on the S. side of CHI. studied by Pattillo-McCoy. black middle class median income 40,000.
1968 Housing and Urban Development Act
passed by congress, offer help for the financing of private development. Wanted to reduced UNCONTROLLED growth. try to create communities with mix of social classes and ethnic groups.
primate cities
large proportion of the population for an entire nation is concentrated in a single city. ex. Mexico City, Mexico. People keep streaming in, but the city doesn't have the resources to sustain hte population growth.
global economy
Traditional sources of wealth will eventually dry up- agriculture, mining. The real power in economy right now is INFORMATION. easily shared between coutries. quickly.