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45 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
3 methodological orientations
scientific, interpretive,critical
critical
Society is a pattern of inequality; our job to figure out which categories dominate others
Research is used to understand and bring about social change- trying to figure out how to solve it..
Researcher takes the role of an activist
Takes a Conflict approach
scientific
Society resembles a hard science; there is an objective reality
Researchers gather quantitative data to understand the underlying social “system”
Researchers are neutral- because trying to make this a real science.
Takes a Structural-Functional Approach- we’re pretty much at mercy of the society
interpretive
Society is an on going interaction, reality is constructed as meanings are agreed upon
Qualitative date are the only way to collect information- only time society exists is when 2 or more interact.- have to listen to what people are saying and analyze
Researchers must participate in order to understand-
Takes a symbolic interaction approach
objectivity
Personal neutrality- what you actually feel about it doesn’t matter. Only thing that matters is the numbers mean, and how you go about it. Research will always be the same, and always have the same results.
value full
Sociologists are human- impossible to make everything objective from.
All humans have a value that we are incapable of divorcing ourselves from
Humans as a subject are value creatures and therefore we must deal with it their values at all times
value free
Sociologist should be as objective as psychics, biology, astronomy- even if you don’t care about something you better still do it correctly.
Weber – Originator of value free sociology
Value relevant – We choose topics that are important to us; after that initial value it needs to be objective as possibe.
how to collect data
Surveys
Systematic method of collecting self-reported data
Can be in-person/phone
Administered or self-administered
Mail-in surveys
Examples: ACL, Census, NSFH

Secondary Analysis
Most common, most boring
Utilizing data sets collected by others and often for other purposes
The preferred method in Sociology as its cheaper and can be done with some speed
Examples: Informal caregiving and Russian Marriage Study

Documents
Analyzing cultural artifacts to gain systematic knowledge
Often will happen when researching a past time period
Usually an Anthropological method; not used too often in Sociology
Examples – The portrayal of Wonder Woman as a cultural figure over the last 50 years

Experiments
Observation of subjects in a controlled environment
Rarely used in Sociology
Humans are social actors and their actions may change in a non-social environment
Examples – Zimbardo’s Stanford Prison Experiment, Milgram Experiment


Overt V. Covert
Overt – Making it clear that you are a researcher and that you are studying them
Covert – Hiding the fact that a study is being done

Structured V. Unstructured
Structured – Seeking and recording only specific events
Unstructured – Recording all the different events and gaining a wide picture of the culture
Good for exploratory studies
participant observation
Participant Observation
Taking part in the act in which you want to study
Direct V. Indirect
Direct Observation – Watch the social phenomenon first hand
Indirect Observation – Observing evidence that the social phenomenon has occurred before your arrival
Participant V. Non-Participant
Participant – Partaking in the social phenomenon (Rare in deviance research)
Non-Participant – “Sitting on the sidelines” (More common in deviance research but not without ethical difficulties)
3 probs with observational studies
Subject Reactivity
Heisenberg uncertainty principal-
If people know they are being watched do they act in normal everyday ways?

Going Native
What happens when the researcher begins to identify with the group they are observing
Particularly bad for deviance research
Remember differential association theory? What does this theoretical stance think this might happen?

Sampling Issues
We can only observe a very small amount of people
Does this allow us to derive a real picture of the culture as a whole or does it really push us into more psychological issues?
kinseys approach to question asking
Don’t ask if, ask how many
Example: Good question – How many times have you had a homosexual relationship?
Normal Question – Have you ever had a homosexual relationship?
This normalizes the behavior and makes the respondent feel more at ease
Humphryes
Attended Washington University in Saint Louis and wrote a dissertation involving the tearoom trade
Moral outrage ensues over the subject matter
Barred from being hired from many universities for his contentious nature
Eventually hired at Southern Illinois University and led an anti-way protest which resulted in a year in prison
Criticized by the gay community for hiding behind a wife and children
Dedicated his first book to his wife and children
Later divorced his wife and moved in with his protégé, Brian Miller
Dropped sociology and became a counselor
Won numerous awards for research despite the contentious nature of his work
watchqueen
Watchqueen – A lookout who warns those in the bathroom if a policeman or a non-participant is approaching
GENDER-androcentricity
acting as if only the actions of men are important; ignoring what women do
gender- over-generalizing
collecting data on a single gender and then generalizing on the entire community. We collect data on men, but assume women will act the same way as men.
gender- gender blindness
failing to consider gender at all
gender- double standards
researchers must be careful not to judge men and women differently
 “man and wife”- implies that the marital status of wife is more important than gender status of women but being a man is more important than being a husband.
gender- interference
the gender of the interviewer should not be a point of contention with the respondent
 It is not socially acceptable for female interviewers to have pri ate conversations with single men in some societies.
 In some societies female interviewers will be treated as a female first and a researcher second
 Respondents will give different answers to questions based on the interviewer’s sex.
Moral entrepreneaur
A person or group who wishes to redefine a personal fear or prejudice as normative function
So what mechanism do these people use to change their community?
Moral entreprise
A directed effort to redefine and apply definitions of deviance to certain individuals and acts
Rules are created and redefined in a moral enterprise
theoretical stances- social constructivist
C:
Deviance does not live in a single individual, place, or institution
Deviance only exists in the interaction of people
Social Constructivist sounds exactly like which of our other theoretical perspectives?
theoretical stances- social power
C:
Differs from Social Constructivist in that it makes entire groups of people deviant, not just individual acts
Still relies upon the motivation of individuals to spearhead the deviance movement but becomes structural
Sounds mysteriously like which of our other theoretical perspectives?
2 steps to changing the normatice order of a society
Generate awareness
Bring about a moral conversion
Both steps must be accomplished for there to be a public reaction, good or bad, to the moral enterprise
Doing one step without the other is not effective or impossible
If a moral enterprise becomes widely accepted by the community then its cause enters the normative order of the culture
Can be a folkway, more , or law
It is no longer a moral enterprise, it is simply moral
A new problem arises when a new norm is formed…who makes sure this norm is enforced and followed?
inherent contradiction in enforcing the rules
The rule enforcers must demonstrate they are still needed; the problem still exists
They must also demonstrate that they are effective in ridding the society of their need
Self-preservation negates the purpose of their job
rule enforcers
Individuals and groups with the new responsibility of enforcing the new norms
Do not need to be part of the original movement
Do not even need to support the new norm
Must adhere to duty to protect the normative order of society

As they have no moral interest in a rule they often develop their own order of importance when enforcing the law

Rule enforcers will often compromise with the rule breaker to make the rules easier to enforce
Moral panics
An intense, widespread, explosively upsurging feeling on the part of the public that something is terribly wrong in their society because of the moral failure of a specific group of individuals, a subpopulation that has been defined as an enemy”
scapegoating
Attributing other non-related social ills to this group of people or to the action
Gives greater explanatory power and thus more reason to rally behind the movement
The most important step
Routinization of Caricature
“recrafting worst cases into typical cases and the episodic into the epidemic”
There must be some type of mechanism that makes the kernel of truth much bigger than it is, media most effective at this
2 says in which reform can happen
assimilative reform- education, lift the deviang groups and the neutral paties to your "enlightened" social plane, implies the deviang groups wish or are capable of changing
visibility
those who commit overt actso f deviance are easier to find and label
The homeless have no closed doors to be deviant behind
The nature of the deviant acts the poor commit require them to be in more contact with others
Easier to turn a visible phenomenon into deviance
demeanor
those who make their deviant acts part of their master status are more likely to be rallied against
If those who are deviant are not remorseful then we have no choice but to react negatively to them
Are they forced into this master status?
Label before deviance or deviance before label?
bias
Through prejudice, racism, ageism… groups will be sought and deviantzed through no fault of their own
10.2% African-American vs. 2.7% Whites who are arrested become institutionalized
From 1890-1969: 1551 cases of White Collar "incidents." 45% tried as criminal cases, 35 convictions, 2% of convictions institutionalized for an average length of 6 months.
differential social power- groups becoming deviant
The ruling class is capable of passing laws to protect themselves
Those who are closer to the center of the ruling class have the most power to deviantize a group
Minority or ethnic racial status, feminine gender, lower social class, youthful age, and homosexual orientation demonstrate this
social control systems- social control
The USA has eight or ten parallel systems of social control
Most of these controls are in the private sector or only loosely connected to the state
Gives the appearance of individualism and agency
discrimination
to make a difference in treatment or favor on a basis other than individual merit
Usually happens leads to one group gaining an advantage in real world settings
civil justice system
private parties sue eachother

also have some sanctions, but no jail

also if c.j. system fails
administrative justice system
15 million businesses
medical control system
which uses chemicals and psychology to control mostly children and women but also those behaviors labeled as 'perversion:' gambling, homosexuality, drug use and alcoholism.


less power in US than anywhere else
private security system
made up of security guards, private courts, private prisons and private detectives. It is larger than the CJS and is growing faster.
social welfare system
monitors the behavior of some 15 million people, mostly poor women and their children. It enforces middle class values of house-keeping, shopping, child care, and sexual behavior. Additionally is designed to keep people on its roles.
peer review
which monitors the crimes/derelicts of professors, lawyers, doctors, brokers and such. It is user friendly.
religious control system
rather small now, it superintends about 10-15 million people who come before their priest/minister, confess their sins, and accept penance and punishment.

continue to get smaller and smaller because of religious system, chatholic
prejudice
preconceived judgment or opinion
an irrational attitude of hostility directed against an individual, a group, a race, or their supposed characteristics
racism
a belief that race is the primary determinant of human traits and capacities and that racial differences produce an inherent superiority of a particular race
Institutional Racism – Barriers placed in the system that preclude certain races from attaining
Examples – Redlining, Affirmative Action(?)