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75 Cards in this Set

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Some consequencies of the baby bust
1. emphasis on aging, health care, degen. disease, institutional & home care
2. concern with pension funds
3. design housing for the independent & dep elderly
4. entertainment for older pops
5. cosmetic surgery, fitness, health related programs
6. shrinking labour force, tax base
7. widowhood +mating gradient
8. later marriage patterns - shifting gradient
9. contracted family - changes in life course
Which province has the highest fertility rate?
Alberta
Three scenarios for Canada
-Easterlin's Relative Income Model
-No Change Model
-Continued Fertility Decline Model
Easterlin's Relative Income Model
When relative income of couples rise, another growth cycle will occur (children review their position relative to parents)
No Change Model
If pop is highly urbanized, has low mortality, and uses contraception effectively, there is little basis for projecting a rise in fertility (threshold of fertility decline has been reached & will fluctuate around replacement)
Continued Fertility Decline Model
High & increasing fem labour force participation, changing social att towawrds children & women, improving education levels, urbanization, and higher ABSOLUTE income could cause further decline in fertility
Aging effects on the 21st century:
1. greater emphasis on aging, health care, disease control
2. new diseases
3. longevity improvements
4. late career shifts
5. design housing for independent & dependent elderly
6. entertainment for an older pop
7. increase in # and proportion of contracted smaller and older families
8. death and middle age family
9. potential need for quasi-extended family system
What is the famly?
The means by which society nurtures, socializes and educates the young, provides roots, a physical and emotional environment and effective outlets for all its members
The primary decision-making unit where behavior-determining decisions are made about reproduction, education, migration, spending & consumption, housing, budgeting of time, health behaviors, family leaving, working decisions, marital dissolution..........
the family
reasons for women to live alone
older females:
1. improved econ situation
2. health
3. housing/fiancial benefits
4. availability of smaller housing units
5. no need to contribute to family household
6. elderly females have chosen to live alone
younger females:
7. increased separation/divorce among the young
8. postponment of marriage
9. younger females increasingly career oriented
Predicted that family membership will occur over a more restricted period of the life cycle, affecting the relationships between generations and the life-cycle patterns of interaction generally
Wargon
labour force decision more complex in the case of married women
There is an element of choice involved; women can choose to work or not work outside of the home
What happened (census highlights) in 1981
For the first time in canada's history, more than one half of all women over 15 years were in the labour force, either in a job or actively seeking one
What has happened to the participataion of men in the labour force?
Stayed stable; convergence b/t rates of men/women b/t 1981 and 1996.
What does the bimodal curve of participation refer to?
Increasingly over the yrs, older women were going to work (35-54 yrs) accounting for
20% of fem labour force in 1951,
increasing to 43.1% in 1991, and 35% in 1996.
wHY DO WOMEN WORK?
-Change in ideological climate
-Greater opportunity
-Economic motives***
(Neccessity-lower class+Luxury of choice-middle class)
-Technological Developments
-Creation on fem occupation categories
-Demographic influences
-Legal encouragements
-Personal fulfillment
-Improvements in education
-Fear of aging
Consequences of working wife/mother
1. Time re arrangements
2. New arrangements for preschool children
3. Interpersonal relations b/t working wife and husband
4. Effects of working mother on children
5. Committment continuum
Remarriage
Typically involves at least one individual who have been previously married
Reconstituted family
A remarriage that includes at least one child residing in the household of the married spouses
Children are only involved in a portion of remarriages... how many divorces include children?
34%
US - Remarriage trends?
Increased sharply throughout the '60s and '70s
In 1979, nearly __% of individuals remarrying had been divorced
90%
In 1979, what % of marriages involved a previously married man or previously married woman?
32% married woman
33% married man
At the beginning of the '70s, what % of marriages involved previously married men / women
24% married woman
25% married man
In Canada, trends in remarriage have followed the US quite closely. However, what is different?
-Sharp increase in Canada following 1968 divorce act
-Another increase following 1985 divorce act
The more times a divorcing person has been married, the ___ the duration of the marriage
Shorter
In Canada, in 1996, how many marriage partners had been divorced?
88%
In regards to remarriage in Canada, the majority of brides/grooms have what status?
same
Divorced marry at ___ rates than the single or widowed
higher
Divorced men marry at ___ rates than __________________
Divorced women at all ages over 25 years
Remarriage rates for both men & women decline with ?
Increasing age
Explanations for differentials in remarriage rates?
1. Differential mortality
2. Mating gradient
3. Divorced man more likely to marry never-married woman than divorced woman is to marry never-married man
4. Cohabitation as an alternative
Remarriage contains a valuable conbination:
1. Reality of a disruption of some kind and degree; and
2. Any attempt at reorganization
The eight types of marriage and rank order in 1996. - What are the top 4?
1. Divorced man/divorced female
2. Divorced man/single female
3. Single man/divorced female
4. Widowed man/Widowed female
8 types of marriage
1. Divorced man/divorced female
2. Divorced man/single female
3. Single man/divorced female
4. Divorced man/widowed female
5. Single man/widowed female
6. Widowed man/single female
7. Widowed man/widowed female
8. Widowed man/divorced female
Bachelors tend to marry ___ more than widows
divorced women
Widowed men tend to marry?
Widowed females
In 1985, there was an increaase in which types of remarriage? Why?
Divorced marrying divorced; possibly b/c of increasing pool of eligibles?
Selected propositions by Goode
1. High divorce rate will lead to high remarriage rate
2. Divorced persons more likely to remarry than widowed are
3. High rate of remarriage in societies which stress importance of fertility
4. Unions between those who have already been married are less stable than those who have only been married once
5. Divorced woman in a setting disapproving of her status is more likely to remarry (e.g. college educaated move more slowly)
The incidence of remarriage today is highest in the?
US, where 40% of marriages involve those previously married
Countries in which remarriage is slow are predominantly...
Roman Catholic Countries (Peru, Philipines, Portugal, Dominican republic, Ecuador, Chile, N. Irelaned, Italy...)
while percentages of remarriages involving divorced are generally above 80%, in catholic countries, are ?
Less than 30%
Across countries, divorced men and women are how much as likely to marry as widowed men and women, respectively?
7 and 18 times as likely
In the US, how do remarriage rates between men and women differ?
Rates are 3x higher for men
In the US, widowed men marry at a rate how much higher than widowed women?
5x
In the US, divorced men marry at a how much higher rate than divorced women?
60% higher rate
Why would there be a substantial excess of women over men who are widowed?
Mortality rates are higher for men than women
What accounts for the differnetials in the rates widowed men/women marry at?
1) Mortality rates higher for men than for women
2) Men tend to marry women younger than them, and this tendency increases with age
3) Divorced man is more likely to marry a woman who has never married than vice versa
In recent yrs, remarriage likely to involve divorced persons. Why?
-Majority of marriages now terminated in divorce (since 1974)
-Divorce often effects young marrieds, and widowhood more likely old marrieds
-Each divorce contributes 2 ppl, whereas each widowhood only gives 1
-Timing of remarriage (widowed take longer to marry)
Estimated how many children are involved in divorce each year?
1.2 million
Approximately what % of children live with their mother after divorce?
90%
Fathers increase their chance of getting custody if?
The mother has already remarried
Split custody
Defined as a situation where the father has the custody of one or more children AND the mother has custody of one or more children; brothers & sisters may live in different households
Found that children seem to be somewhat of a deterrent to remarriage
Spanier & Glick
Found the age of parents at the time of the divorce may be especially important in understanding the impact of children
Koo and Suchindran

-Women divorcing b/f 25, having children decreased likelihood of remarriage
-Women divorcing 35+, increased chances of remarriage
Among families of remarried mothers, how many children were living with their biological mother and a stepfather?
70%

The other 30% were living with both biological parents; children born after marriage
How does remarriage affect fertility?
-Divorced+ remarried women have lower fertility than women who are in first marriages, but higher than women who divorce and don't remarry. So, divorced women will have lower fertility than those in her cohort.
About 50% of marriages in the 70s will end in divorce; about how many remarriages will end this way?
55%
How did Cherlin explain why remarriages may divorce @ higher rates?
-Special challenges
-Incomplete institution, with few clearly defined norms
-Difficult adjustments
-Presence of stepchildren
Furstenburg & Spanier didn't agree with Cherlin's explanation of why divorced have higher rates. What did they say?
-Divorced MORE WILLING to terminate marriages
Several reasons why process of remarriage is different (& probably more complicated) than initial entry
1. 1st marriage has lingering effects
2. Continuous imprint; often cannot involve continuouos contact
3. 1st & 2nd marriages take part in divergent points in someone's life; variations in life experience, maturity, etc.
4. Remarried individual is a member of two different cohorts; exposed to two different cultural standards of how marriage should operate
Concluded that well being following dissolution of marriage is not significantly altered by transition to marriage/cohabitation
Spanier & Furstenberg
Wha does the rise in marital disruption mean for children?
-Substantial proportion of children will spend part of thier childhood either living with a single parent, one biologicval parent/1 stepparent, or dividing their time between two households
Found that intitial period following divorce was especially hard on children; 1/3 good adjustment, 1/3 soe signs of both, 1/3 negative signifiant problems.
Wallerstein & Kelly
Found that stepfamilies were more likely to experience stress, negative feelings, and low self esteem than first marriage families
Bowerman and Irish
Found no difference between adolescents in first marriage, broken, or remarriage families in his study of 1500 Iowa school students
Burchinal
Found conspicious gender differences in managemet of parenthood after divorce & remarriage; since women often awarded custody, fathers less and less involved in parenthood
Furstenberg, Spanier and Rothschild
Found taht when men and women defer remarriage, they're more likely to share parental responsibilities more equally than when one or both remarry
Furstenberg
Chilman (1981) summarized some themes of problems/adjustments in stepfamilies
1. Discipline
2. Open communication needed; newlyweds often don't focus on children
3. Shifts in residence are hard on kids
4. Close, positive relationship needed; when problems aren't resolved, children tend to act out on the marriage
5. Open discussion
6. Biological grandparents; if they resent divorce, may form coalition w/ grandkids against new marriage
7. Grandparents and grown kids may be involved in troubled relationships
Pointed out that physical and emotional distance between parent and child lessens the likelihood that relations will continue between 1st and 3rd generations
Furstenberg and Spanier
Relations between blood relatives intensify somewhat following a divorce, whereas relations with inlaws
are curtailed severely following a divorce
Def'n of household
A person/group of persons who occupy the same dwelling place and do not usually have a place of residence elsewhere in Canada
Households may consist of:
-Family group (census family)
-Two or more families
-Group of unrelated, or
-One person living alone
Census Family - defn
Refers to now married couple, a couple living common law, or a lone parent of any marital status, with at least one never married son or daughter living in the same dwelling
The family is a ___ unit, while the household is an ____ unit
Family - Social unit
Household - Economic Unit