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17 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
fact
any event in space and time
any non-random sequence of events
any attribte, quality or property of a thing
any relation between a thing and another thing
any condition
scientific fact
one or more events, processes, realtions or conditions that are consistent with a scientific law, explanation or empirical generalization

determined by proper scientific procedure
explanation
a casual account of how a given event came about or comes about reccurently under specifiable conditions

a statement of causal relations between 2 or more events or facts
scientific theory
related statements that explain a pattern or sequence of facts

theories strive for abstraction, generalizability and conditionality
realist theory
a troup of related statements that explain facts by hypothesizing the existence of hidden structres or processes (which produce facts worthy of explanation)
positivist theory
its indifferent to hidden structures and mechanism; any variables will do

it's concerned with prediction
critical theory
rejects "the separation of fact and value

it studies the world dispassionately

very critical/definitive
but is very black and white (no grey area)
interpretive theory
rejects explanation and prediction in favor of understanding the symbolic meaning that people ascribe to their own and others conduct
realism
view that the universe is mind-independent so humans have to adjust their conceptions to the facts of the universe
materialism
all mental phenomena emerge from physical structures and processes

associated with atomism (the quest for smallest units of matter that in lawful combinations produce the perceptible and knowledgable world)
idealism
view that our knowledge of the unoverse is ineluctably mind-dependent
positivism
auguste comte: only rigorous methods of scientific procedure can produce valid knowledge
historicism
an adequate understanding of any socio-cultural phenomenon requires us to examine it as a unique outcome of innumerable influences
empiricism
all valid knowledge is derived inductively from experience
rationalism
some general truths are knowable "a priori" by intrinsic self-evidence or intelligibility
holism
true architecture of reality consists of interdependent and encompassing structures or systems organized into levels

"whole is greater than the sums of its parts"
reductionism
structures and systems must be analytically decomposed into their elemental, irreducible parts, which are the true building blocks of reality