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18 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
consensus perspective
(also known as functionalism)
-socities maintain relative equilibrium through adjustive and supportive interaction of principal institutions
conflict perspective
-the social structures and cultural ideas reflect the interests of only some members of society rather than society as a whole
ex. feminism or marxism
strain theory
-ppl feel strain when they have cultural goals they are unable to obtain b/c they don't have culturally approved means of achieving those goals
mechanical solidarity
-a community bonding or interdependency of similiarity of beliefs and values, shared activities, and ties of kinship and cooperation
organic solidarity
-interdependency created by the specialization of roles where ppl and institutions become dependent on others in a complex division of labor
-an absence of societal norms and values, ppl lack social regulation and feel unguided in the decisions they make
social structure
-pattern and stable arrangment of roles and statuses in socities and social institutions
culturally perscribed aspiration
-rejection that aspiration is self-created, but is defined by culture and transmitted by other members of society
opportunity structure
-opportunity is shaped by the way the society or institution is organized or structured
absolute deprivation
-the inability to sustain oneself physically and materially
relative deprivation
-deprivation is not judged against some absolute standard, but against others around you
-a group of ppl who share a distinct set of cultural beliefs and behaviors that differ from larger society
human capital
-talents and capabilities that ppl contribute to the process of production
middle class measuring rod
-children and youth of the lower class measured against middle-class standards
reaction formation
-lower class children who cannot succeed when measured to middle class criteria, reverse these values and obtain status by doing the opposite
mutual conversion
-conversion to deviance is not a solitary activity, but achieved through a process of interaction with others
lower-class culture
-the lower class has developed and transmits to its children , a different set of cultural values and expectations
2 sociological theoretical perspectives
a. consensus perspective
b. conflict perspective