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16 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
operationally defined
-to define some concept of study in such a way that it can be observed and measured.
-where an individual commits new criminal offences after having been sentenced for previous crimes
rate of recidivism
* difficult to measure *
-a basic tool in evaluating the effectiveness of various corrections programs
logitudinal study
-measures the relationships btwn variables over a period of time
cross sectional investigation
-a study, survey, or measurement of a phenomenon or a popn taken at one point of time
ex. census survey
monozygotic twins
(identical twins)
-from a single egg that divides after fertilization for 2 embryos
-share same sex and same genetic material
dizygotic twins
(fraternal twins)
- 2 fertilized eggs
- no more genetic material than siblings, can be different sex
statistically significant
-determining whether differences btwn groups is because of chance
statistically significant difference
-unlikely that the differences could have occured by chance
ex. 0.05/100
etiological factor
-a factor that encourages or causes a particular outcome
ex. drug addict leads to prostitution
social intervention program
-activity by gov't, social agencies, and volunteers designed to change and improve the social situations of individuals, groups, and communities
electrodermal response
-electrical activity of the sweat glands of the skin
tests of electrodermal activity
-correlation btwn skin conductivity and tendency to delinquency, aggresiveness, and recidivism
most biological factors
-are only indirectly related to criminal behavior
biological factors that directly affect criminal behavior
-are rare
ex. tumors, brain disease, and certain forms of epilepsy with brain damage
ppl with major mental disorders
-greater risk to commit crimes, especially crimes of violence