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27 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
correlate
-any variable that is related to another variable
-age and sex are the two strongest correlates of crime
correlation
-a relationship that exists when 2 or more variables are associated
2 explanations for why a correlation exists
a. causal
b. theory
a causal explanation
-a change in one variable is from or intiates change in another variable
sex and age variables
-more commonly the young male commits the crime
maturational reform
-involvement in crime tends to decrease as people age
salient life events
-leaving school, entering the labor market, and getting married influence the likelihood of criminal behavior
role convergance hypothesis
-one explanation for the rising crime rate among women has been that their roles have become similiar to (converged with) those of men
overrepresentation
-a group that has a # of members in greater numbers than their pop'n would suggest
(ex. overrepresentation of aboriginals in crime)
cultural explanation
-an explanation for crime that is phrased in terms of the culture of subgroup or the culture of that nation
structural explanation
-an explanation for crime that focuses on social structure
ex. inequality, poverty...
social class
-those of lower SES more criminality
criminality and geographic region
-based on countries, regions within a country, communities, and urban neighbourhoods
Canada crime
-most in the west and north
social organization theory
-an increase in crime is attributed to increasing size, density, and heterogeneity of a community
routine activities theory
-demographic composition and other features of urban locations affects crime rates
the most important correlates of crime
a. age
b. sex
c. race
d. social class
e. region
age and crime
-after peaking in late adolescence/early adulthood, crime decreases with increasing age
men and crime
-more likely to be involved in violent crimes and serious property offences
women and crime
-increase in small property crimes such as theft and fraud
(increase in past 3 decades)
alcohol and aboriginals
-plays a major role indirectly and directly to the overrepresentation of aboriginals
most research on crime and social class
-conflicting
low SES
-mostly commit violent and property crimes like B&E, or theft
high SES
-corporate and white-collar crimes
less developed countries
-have higher violent crime rates
larger communities and neighborhoods near the city center
-have higher crime rates
crime and region explanations
-theories that stress economic inequality, social disorganization, and opportunities for crime