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50 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Sex
The biolobical distinction between females and males
Primary Sex characterishtics
The genitals and organs used for reproduction
Secondary sex characteristics
Bodily development apart from the genital
Intersexuals
People whose bodies have both male and female characteristics
Trannssexuals
people who feel they are one sex even though biologically they are the other
Alfred Kinsey
Scientific stufy of sexuality - fostered a new openness toward sexuality
What happened in 1960s
We got birth control
When did Aids first show up?
1981
Sexual Orientatio
A person's romantic and emotional attractiong to another person
Heterosexuaility
Affectional and erotic attrachment to people of the opposite sex
Homosexuality
Affectional and erotic attachment to people of the same sex
Bisexuality
Sexual attraction to people of both sexes
Asexuality
Not much interest in sex at all
Anthropologists provide evidence suggesting that sexual orintation is
Sociall constructed
Deviance
The recognized violation of cultural norms
Crime
The violating of a society's formally enacted criminal law
Social Control
Attempts by society to regulate people's thought and behavior
The Criminal Justice System
A formal response by police, courts, and prison officials to alleged violations of laws
Walter Reckless and Simon Dinitz found
that "good boys" display a strong conscience while "bad boys" demonstrate a weak one
What did Durkheim state about deviance?
That there is nothing abnormal about it, and that it affirms cultural values and norms - clairfies moral boundaries, and encourages social change
Labeling theory
Deviance and conformity result not so much from what people do as from how other respond to those actions
Primary deviance
has little effect on a person's self-concept
Secondary Deviance
A person begins to take on a deviant identity
Stigma
A powerfully negative label that greatly changes a person's self-concept and social identity
The medicalization of deviance
The transformation of moral and legal deviance into a medical condition
White-collar crime
Committed by people of high social position in the course of their occupation
Organized Crime
A business supplying illegal goods or services
Coroprate crime
The illegal actions of a corportation of people acting on its behalf
Hate Crime
A criminal act against a person or person's property by an offender motivated by racial or other bias
Social Stratification
A system by which a society ranks categories of people in a hierarachy
Ideology
Cultural beliefs that justify particular social arrangments, particulary patterns of inequality
A caste System
Social Stratification based on ascription or birth
A class system
Social stratification based on both birth and individual achievement
USA's Ideology
Meritocracy - positions are based on personal merit and everyone has an equal chance
Davis-Moorse Thesis
Stratification has beneficial consequences for the operation of a society
Socioeconomic Status
A composite ranking based on various dimesnions of inequality
The Kuznets Curve
High-income nations that have passed through the industrial era have less economic inequality
Wealth
The total value of money and other assets, minus outstanding debts
Intragenertation social mobility
A change in social position occurruing during a person's lifetime
Intergenerational social mobility
Upward or downward social mobility of children in relation to their parents
Relative proverty
The depreivation of some people in relation to those who have more
Absolute poverty
A deprivation of resources that is life threatening
Modernization theory
Explains global inequality in terms of technological and cultural differences between societies
Tradition is the
greatest barrier for poor societies
Dependency theory
Explaions global ineqaulity in terms of the historical exploitation of poor societies by rich ones
Gender
The personal traits and social positions that members of a society attach to being female and male
Gender stratification
The unequal distribution of wealth, power and privilege between men and women
Gender Role
attitudes and activities that a society links to sex
Sexual harassment
Comments, gestures of physical contact of a sexual nature that are deliberate, repeated and unwelcome
Deminism
The advocacy of social equality for men and women in opposition to patriarchy and sexism