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86 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What two devices help dissipate heat in modern CPUs?
heat sink
fan
What purpose do the following devices inside the case serve?
~Motherboard
~Hard drive
~Power supply
~Circuit board
Motherboard - contains cpu, memory, other components
Hard drive - used for permanenet storage
Power supply - supply electricity
Circuit board - used by cpu to communicate with other devices
What is the difference between serial ports and parallel ports? What kind of devices is USB used for?
serial - bit by bit
parallel - several bits at the same time, universal serial bus
For what is CMOS chip used? When and why does it sometimes need a battery?
RAM, used to store start up programs. Needs a battery because it is volatile memory and needs power to retain its information.
What is flux reversal?
A pattern of magnetic fields on memory.
How many channels for EIDE devices can a consumer grad PC have, and how many devices per channel do they have?
Two and two.
Describe how decreasing the size of clusters and or sectors can increase the amount of available space on a personal computer hard disk drive.
The smaller the cluster, the more efficiently space is used. If a file is smaller than a single cluster or large enough to take up more than one cluster then the extra space in the cluster is wasted.
Name and briefly describe the four major components of hard drive geometry.
cylinders - platters or memory used to store info
heads - saves the data on the disk
sectors - defined areas on the platters
tracks - the lines of space on the platter
Name four reasons why a computer may have multiple partitions.
smaller file sizes
reduce fragmentation
easy backup
multiple os's
cashing
using more hdd than your bios can handle
What does NTFS stand for in relation to the Windows 2000 operating system?
New
Technology
File
System
How many versions of Windows 2000 are there?
Four
Define what an operating system is.
An operating system provides a user interface for users and applications and manages the contact between software and hardware.
What do each of the following stand for?
SIMM
DIMM
RIMM
SIMM - single inline memory module
DIMM - double inline memory module
RIMM - rambus inline memory module
Which type of RAM is the most common?
SIMM
DIMM
RIMM
DIMM
DOS
User interface
Tasking (single, multiple)
Backwards Compatibility
Home or Professional
Security
16/32 bit applications
Networking
2 advantages
2 disadvantages
DOS
interface - command
tasking - single
compatibility - none
Home or pro - home
security - none
16/32 bit - 16 bit
networking - none
adv - small, simple
dis - no interface, no security
Windows 3x
User interface
Tasking (single, multiple)
Backwards Compatibility
Home or Professional
Security
16/32 bit applications
Networking
2 advantages
2 disadvantages
Interface - menu and icon
Tasking - single
Compatible - yes
Home or Pro - home
security - some
bit - 16 bit
networking - none
adv - interface, updgraded DOS
dis - locks up, little security
Windows 9x
User interface
Tasking (single, multiple)
Backwards Compatibility
Home or Professional
Security
16/32 bit applications
Networking
2 advantages
2 disadvantages
menu + icon
coop multitasking
compatible - yes
home use
security better than 3x
16 bit
networking
adv - better useability, multitasking
dis - many security patches, ME upggrade not substantial
Windows NT
User interface
Tasking (single, multiple)
Backwards Compatibility
Home or Professional
Security
16/32 bit applications
Networking
2 advantages
2 disadvantages
menu + icon
preemptive multitasking
not based on dos, not back compatible
pro
good security
16 + 32 bit
good networking
adv - not based on DOS, newer tech
dis - only for pro, not back comp.
Windows 2000
User interface
Tasking (single, multiple)
Backwards Compatibility
Home or Professional
Security
16/32 bit applications
Networking
2 advantages
2 disadvantages
menu + icon
preemptive multitasking
back compat w/ NT
both home and pro
good security, esp. pro
16 + 32 bit
good networking
adv - personal and pro use, four versions
dis - 2CPU use, patches
WindowsXP
User interface
Tasking (single, multiple)
Backwards Compatibility
Home or Professional
Security
16/32 bit applications
Networking
2 advantages
2 disadvantages
menu + icon
preemptive multitasking
back compat w/ NT + 2000
home + pro
very good security
16 + 32 bit
good networking
adv - updated security, new interface
dis - complicated OS, 2CPUs process
Unix
User interface
Tasking (single, multiple)
Backwards Compatibility
Home or Professional
Security
16/32 bit applications
Networking
2 advantages
2 disadvantages
command
singletasking
back compat
pro
good security
32 bit apps
networking
adv - good for web pages, free avail source code
dis - many apps not compat, takes training
What does the system clock do?
keeps the beat for motherboard activities
What three things does the chip set control?
memory cache
external buses
some peripherals
What determines the data path size?
determined by width of bus dta path, or number of parallel wires in bus data path
What determines the number of memory addresses?
determined by number of traces, or wires, on the bus that are used for memory addresses.
What is memory cache?
Small amount of RAM that is faster than rest of RAM; does not need refreshing; can hold data as long as power is available.
What is the difference between primary and secondary cache?
primary - internal or level 1 cache. included on chip itself
secondary - external or level 2 cache. outside the cpu.
What is RISC?
Reduced Instruction Set Computing
Give two advantages to using RISC
small number of operating instructions to perform
are much faster when few complex calculations are required
ideal for video or telecommunications applications
easier and cheaper to manufacture
What does GMCH stand for? what does it do?
Graphics Memory Control Hub? Controls display and memory.
What does ICH stand for? What does it do?
I/O control hub
Controls everything that the GMHC doesn't
What is Falsh ROM and what does it allow you to do?
Flash ROM (erasable programmable read-only memory or EEPROM) allows you to upgrade system BIOS without having to replace ROM chip.
What is the difference between DRAM and SRAM in how they function?
DRAM - dynamic ram. holds data for a very short time. slower, must be refreshed often.
SRAM - holds data until power is turned off
Name two advantages and one disadvantage of a tape drive?
advantages: inexpensive and convenient, large capacity, several types and formats
disadvantages: sequential access
Name two common storage devices used today.
CD
DVD
Tape
Removable disk
What is EPROM?
Erasable programmable rom
What is EEPROM?
electronically erasable programmable rom or flash rom
What is the difference between EPROM and EEPROM?
EPROM is erased with ultraviolet light so that the chip can be reprogrammed. EEPROM is erased electronically.
What does ''refresh'' mean?
the data must be rewritten to the chip
What is synnchronous SRAM?
requires a clock signal to manage or synchronize its control signal
What is burst RAM?
Data is sent in a 2-step process; first the data address and then a series of data transmissions
What is pipelined burst SRAM?
Use more clock cycles per transferthan does burst SRAM without pipelining, but is less expensive.
What is Asynchronous SRAM?
It does not work in step with the CPU clock which makes it unable to process much data in one request and results in overall slower memory access.
What is SDRAM?
synchronous DRAM runs in sync with the system clock and is rated by clock speed.
What is DDR SDRAM?
Double-data rate SDRAM is a faster version of SDRAM that runs at 200 MHz
What is RDRAM?
Rambus DRAM uses a faster system bus but only 16 bit data path.
What does parity do?
Parity is an error checking procedure.
What are DIP switches used for?
Store setup data on a motherboard
What are the ten main components on a motherboard?
CPU + chip set
system clock
ROM BIOS
CMOS configuration chip + its battery
RAM
RAM cache
System bus with expansion slots
jumpers and DIP switches
Ports on the board
Power supply connections
Name ten attributes used to rate CPUs
Speed in MHz
efficiency of code
# of transistors
# of registers
word size
special functionality
data path size
max number of memory addresses
size of internal cache
multiprocessing abilities
When a device on a computer needs to get the attention of the CPU,it uses what method
configured in priority order, to tell the CPU of its need to communicate.,IRQ interrupt request line
Define and describe the relationship between ROM, BIOS, and CMOS?
CMOS remembers system info like how memory is allocated
ROM holds programs that cannot be erased
BIOS is firmware that controls much of the comps I/O functions
The operating system on a computer controls what four things on a computer?
Manages hardware
runs applications
provides user interface
stores, retrieves and manipulates files
What are the three categories of PC software?
BIOS and device drivers
OS
Application software
Name and describe the three categories of BIOS
System BIOS - programs to control I/O devices
Startup BIOS - programs that control the startup of the computer
CMOS setup - programs to change the information stored in CMOS
Describe how the IRQ works.
Line on a bus that a device uses to alert the CPU that it needs servicing, also called hardware interrupts.
Describe how I/O addresses work.
Numbers the CPU can use to access hardware devices in the same way it uses memory addresses to access physical memory. Also called port addresses or ports.
Describe how memory addresses work.
Hexadecimal numbers, written in segment/offset form. assigned to RAM and ROM so that the CPU can access both
Describe how a DMA channell works
Provides shortcuts for a device to send data directly to memory and bypass the CPU
A chip on the motherboard contains DMA logic and manages the process.
What is shadowing ROM?
Process of copying programs from ROM to RAM for execution.
What is the difference between a hard boot and a soft boot?
Hard boot - cold boot - involves initially turning on power with on/off switch.
Soft boot - warm boot - uses OS to reboot, faster than a hard boot.
Describe the six functions performed in the boot process.
Startup BIOS
Setup info
Hardware assigned system resources
Startup BIOS finds the OS
Hardware devices are matched with the BIOS and their device drivers
Application software
Name and describe the two main components of an operating system.
Shell - relates to the user and to applications. provides a command, menu, or icon interface.
Kernel - interacts with hardware
What is a thread?
Each process that a CPU is aware of
What are the three types of interfaces?
Command driven
Menu driven
Icon driven
What is single-tasking?
What OS used single-tasking?,CPU or OS can run only one program at a time. Used by DOS
Name and describe the two types of multitasking?
What is the difference between the two?
Cooperative - not true multitasking. The CPU is still only aware of one program at a time.
Preemptive - CPU aware of 2 threads but only one is active. Each thread is alotted an amount of time.
Preemptive - CPU aware of 2 threads
but only one is active. Each thread is alotted an amount of time.
Describe how a hardware interrupt works.
HW sends IRQ to CPU, the request is processed by a request handler or interrupt handler.
Describe how a software interrupt works.
initiated by software sending an interrupt (INT) to the CPU.
Describe what the CMOS setup chip contains and what its responsibilities are.
Holds setup information about the computer. Responsible for remembering the current data and time, which hard and floppy drives are present, and how serial + parallel ports are configured
Application software depends on a particular OS to do what three things?
Provide access to hardware resources
Manage its data in memory and in secondary storage
Perform other background tasks
What are the seven steps in loading and initializing software applications?
OS receives command to load
OS finds program file
OS loads program file
OS hands control to program
Program requests memory addresses
Program initializes
Turns to user
What is a boot disk?
A floppy that has enough software on it to load an OS
What is a rescue disk?
A bootable disk that has some utility programs on it to troubleshoot a failed hard drive
What is a command prompt?
a tool used to receive a suggestion from the user in text form
Name two different ways you can access a command prompt.
Start, program, MS-DOS prompt
Start, run, enter command.com in the run dialog box
Start, shutdown, restart in MS-DOS mode (win 95/98)
Create MS-DOS startup disk
Hold down Ctrl or F8 while booting
What are the three areas of the memory map and what is the range of memory addresses for each?
Conventional - first 640K of memory addresses
Upper memory - memory addresses from 640K up to 1024K
Extended memory - memory above 1024K
~high memory area: first 64K of extended memory
What determines the number of memory addresses a CPU can assign to physical memory?
Determined by number of memory address lines available on memory bus.
What is memory mapping and when does it occur?
Assigning addresses to RAM and ROM occurs during booting
What is Himem.sys?
device driver for all memory above 640K, manages memory as a device
What is a cluster?
A cluster is a file allocation unit, how data is logically organized.
What four things does the format command create?
Tracks and sectors
Boot record
Two copies of the FAT
Root directory
What is the boot record?
First sector on the disk
Contains basic information about how the disk is organized
List three different times when you would partition a hard drive.
First installation of new hard drive
Existing hard drive giving errors
Suspect that a virus has attached the drive
Want to wipe the hard drive clean and install a new OS
What is a batch file?
When you have a list of OS commands that you want to execute several times
Store the list of commands in a batch file (.bat extension) on disk and then execute the batch file at each PC.