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62 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Name the three nasal conchae.
Dorsal, ventral and ethmoidal
Name the three nasal meatuses. What are they?
Dorsal, middle and ventral. They are the air passages between the conchae.
Name the three paranasal sinuses.
Frontal sinus, sphenoidal sinus and the maxillary recess.
Name the five cartilages of the larynx.
Thyroid cartilage, cricoid cartilage, paired arytenoid cartilage, and the epiglottis.
What is the rima glottis?
The cranial opening into the larynx bounded by the corniculate processes of the arytenoid cartilages dorsally and the vocal folds ventrally.
Name the three nasal conchae.
Dorsal, ventral and ethmoidal
Name the three nasal meatuses. What are they?
Dorsal, middle and ventral. They are the air passages between the conchae.
Name the three paranasal sinuses.
Frontal sinus, sphenoidal sinus and the maxillary recess.
Name the five cartilages of the larynx.
Thyroid cartilage, cricoid cartilage, paired arytenoid cartilage, and the epiglottis.
What is the rima glottis?
The cranial opening into the larynx bounded by the corniculate processes of the arytenoid cartilages dorsally and the vocal folds ventrally.
What musle is the only abductor of the glottis?
Cricoarytenoideus dorsalis (CAD)
What does the cricoarytenoideus dorsalis (CAD) do?
Abduct the glottis
What nerve supplies the intrinsic muscles of the larynx?
branches of the vagus - the cranial and recurrent laryngeal nerves
What does the cranial laryngeal nerve innervate?
provides motor to the cricothyroideus muscle and sensory to the mucosa of the larynx.
What nerve provides motor to the cricothyroideus muscle and sensory to the mucosa of the larynx?
The cranial laryngeal nerve.
What nerve innervates all intrensic muscles except the cricothyroideus?
The caudal laryngeal nerve which is the terminal branch of the recurrent laryngeal nerve.
What dogs and cats are predisposed to developing BAS?
Brachycephalic breeds - bulldogs, pekingnese, bostons, pugs, lhasas and shih tzus
What four abnormalities are generally present in BAS?
Stenotic nares, elongated soft palate, hypoplastic trachea, redundant pharyngeal mucosa
Where does a normal soft palate extend to?
Just past the tip of the epiglottis or to the mid to caudal aspect of the tonsillar crypt.
In a BAS dog, what happens to the elongated soft palate during inspiration?
It is sucked between the corniculate processes of the arytenoid cartilages and obstructs the dorsal aspect of the rima glottis.
How is hypoplastic trachea diagnosed?
Cervical +/- thoracic tracheal radiographs and comparison of the tracheal diameter to other normal structures.
What are the criteria for diagnosing a hypoplastic trachea?
tracheal lumen diameter at the thoracic inlet/thoracic inlet diameter is <0.2 or tracheal lumen diameter midway btw the thoracic inlet and carina/width of third rib is <3
What can be done about redundant pharyngeal mucosa.
Nothing - no surgical tx.
What acquired abnomalities can occur secondary to untreated BAS abnomalities?
1. Everted laryngeal saccules - obstructs the ventral portion of the rima glottis.
2. Laryngeal collapse.
What are the three stages of laryngeal collapse?
1. everted laryngeal saccules
2. collapse of the cuneiform processes of teh arytenoid cartilages and aryepiglottic folds
3. most severe - collapse of the corniculate proceses of the arytenoid cartilages
In an animal presenting with acute respiratory distress, what can ge given to reduce pharyngeal and laryngeal edema?
short-acting corticosteroids
What is the most critical period during surgical treatment of BAS?
anesthetic induction and recovery
T or F:
Thoracic radiographs should be taken preoperatively for all BAS patients.
True. Evaluate for tracheal size, presence of pulmonary edema, and cardiac silhouette for evidence of concurrent congenital anomalies.
Describe the two surgeries for tx of stenotic nares.
1. Wedge resection of the wing of the nostril and alar cartilage - vertically or horizontally: good cosmetic results
2. Partial resection of wing of nostril and alar carilage - no suturing, heals by second intention. Less cosmetic, good for dogs that are too small for closure.
What is a major complication of soft palate resection?
Making it too short causes nasal regurgitation, chronic rhinitis/sinusitis and aspiration pneumonia
In an animal presenting with acute respiratory distress, what can ge given to reduce pharyngeal and laryngeal edema?
short-acting corticosteroids
What is the most critical period during surgical treatment of BAS?
anesthetic induction and recovery
T or F:
Thoracic radiographs should be taken preoperatively for all BAS patients.
True. Evaluate for tracheal size, presence of pulmonary edema, and cardiac silhouette for evidence of concurrent congenital anomalies.
Describe the two surgeries for tx of stenotic nares.
1. Wedge resection of the wing of the nostril and alar cartilage - vertically or horizontally: good cosmetic results
2. Partial resection of wing of nostril and alar carilage - no suturing, heals by second intention. Less cosmetic, good for dogs that are too small for closure.
What is a major complication of soft palate resection?
Making it too short causes nasal regurgitation, chronic rhinitis/sinusitis and aspiration pneumonia
When should one estimate the normal length of the soft palate?
Before intubation
What suture material and pattern should be used in surgery to correct stenotic nares?
4-0 to 6-0 synthetic absorbable suture in a simple interuppted pattern.
What suture material and pattern should be used in soft palate resection?
The oral mucosa should be sutured to the nasal mucosa using 3-0 to 4-0 synthetic absorbable suture in a simple continuous pattern.
Laryngeal collapse usually occurs secondary to what diseases?
BAS and untreated laryngeal paralysis
What is the best treatment for stage 3 laryngeal collapse?
Permanent tracheostomy.
What is the treatment for stage 2 laryngeal collapse?
Correction of underlying cause of upper airway obstruction +/- partial laryngectomy (unilateral removal of the aryepiglottic fold and cuneiform process of the arytenoid cartilage)
What is the most common type of nasal neoplasia in dogs?
Nasal adenocarcinoma
What nasal neoplasias are seen commonly in cats?
Epithelial tumors and lymphosarcoma.
T or F
Surgery alone can usually provide effective treatment for most nasal tumors.
False. Surgery alone may decrease severity of clinical signs, but will not prolong survival time - need to do radiation.
What is the most common fungal rhinitis?
Aspergillosis
Is chronic bacterial rhinitis unresponsive to medical management seen more commonly in cats or dogs?
Cats
Which nasal diseases are unilateral vs. bilateral?
Unilateral - neoplastic diseases and foreign bodies
Bilateral - fungal disease
What may cause nasal depigmentation?
Aspergillosis
What does a dorsal rhinotomy allow access to?
Nasal passages, frontal sinuses and wide exposure to entire nasal cavity.
What does a ventral rhinotomy allow access to?
A limited portion of the nasal passages but does not allow access to the frontal sinuses. Useful for localized disease caudal to the ethmoid turbinates and on the ventral aspect of teh turbinates.
Name three complications of nasal cavity surgery.
Hemorrhage, chronic serosanguinous nasal discharge, subcutaneous emphysema.
What should be considered a ddx in all cases of feline upper respiratory disease?
Nasopharyngeal polyps
What other disease is frequently associated with nasopharyngeal polyps?
Otitis media
What age cats are nasopharyngeal polyps most frequently seen in?
Younger cats, but can be in any age cat.
Is there a sex or breed predilection for nasopharyngeal polyps?
No
Where does a nasopharyngeal polyp originate?
The middle ear (tympanic bulla) or the eustacian tube.
What type of imaging should be done to work up a nasopharyngeal polyp patient?
Rads or CT of middle ear (bullae)
What percentage of nasopharyngeal polyps will recur if it is simply removed by traction?
50-60%
Where is the nasopharyngeal polyp generally attached in the tympanic bulla?
In the dorsal, less accessible compartment
What adjacent structures must be carefully avoided when doing a bulla osteotomy?
Sympathetic innervation to the eye, facial nerve and vestibular system within the inner ear.
What is a common complication of bulla osteotomy?
Transient Horner's Syndrome present in virtually all cats.
When does laryngeal paralysis occur?
When there is a problem with the recurrent laryngeal nerve (specifically the caudal laryngeal nerve) that innervates the CAD muscle