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19 Cards in this Set

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What are the 3 types of venomous pit vipers seen in this country?
Pit Vipers, Rattlesnakes, Copperheads and Cottonmouths
Other than the pit vipers what other grouping of snakes are we concerned about with animals becoming injured by?
Pit Vipers and Elapids which are the coral snakes.
Why do we call the snakes Pit Vipers? Is it b/c they live in a pit?
No it is b/c Pit Vipers have a sensory pit between the eyes and nostril to seek prey.
Lots of animals, dogs and cats, are bitten by venomous snakes each year, almost 150,000. What is the number one snake they are bitten by and the location?
99% are pit viper bites

Dogs mostly bitten on the head or face. Cats mostly bitten on the front legs. Matches the victims behaviors.
Every form of venom is species specfic in its components but what are the 3 uses of venom?
1. To immobilize Prey
2. To pre-digest prey
3. Defense against threats
What are the 4 enzymes found in snake venom?
Metalloproteinases
Kininogenase
Hyaluronidase
Phospholipase
What is th purpose of Hyaluronidase is snake venom?
Hyaluronidase is an enzyme in snake venom that breaks down tissues to increase spreading of the venom and its affects.
This enzyme of snake venom is able to disrupt membranes, uncouple phosphorylation, inhibit cellular respiration, and cause the release of inflammatory mediators?
Phospholipase
This snake venom enzyme is a potent vasodilator through its production of Bradykinins?
Kininogenase, stimulates production of prostaglandins and leads to further vasodilation and shock
It is common to see Splanchnic blood pooling in dogs and what form in cats?
Pulmonary blood pooling in cats
What are some factors that influence the severity of the snake bite and its amount of venom deposited?
Time of Year
Age of the Snake
Time since last Strike
Location of the bite
Activity of the Victim since the bite
Form of attack, offensive, defensive, or agonal (worst)
The diagnostic plan for a snake bite patient is what? What is key to observe on the chemistry panel?
CBC, Chem Panel with CK to note muscle damage and indicate severity of envenomation, Platelet count, and Coagulation Panel
What is the first and most important portion of treatment post bite?
IMMOBILIZE the patient to reduce the circulation of the venom. This may include administering Benedryl, not for its antihistamine properties but rather its sedative properties.
There is an Antivenin available but often the risks of administration are greater than the snake bite. What are the indications for administering the antivenin?
Rapid and progressive swelling especially near the head that may affect respirations
Severe Coag issues
Shock
Neuromuscular toxicity
Must be given ASAP
Elapids or Coral snakes are less common than pit vipers howver they produce a different toxin. What is the toxin?
Primarily a neurotoxin which produces a neuromuscular junction blockade
What is the time for onset of signs with Coral Snake bites?
170 mins
Both Pit Vipers and Coral Snakes can cause an increase in the CK values of the chem panel. What are some different clinical signs of coral snake bites?
Agitation
Ptosis
Dysphagia
Ptyalism
Vomiting
Flacid quadriplegia
There is an antivenin for Pit Vipers, is there one for Coral Snakes?
Not in the US, instead ventilator support and IV lidocaine are used for ventricular arrhythmias if present.
What is the outcome of most snake bites?
Recovery for both Pit Vipers and Coral Snakes, possible tissue loss is all.