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41 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
nonverbal communication
communication without words
functions of nonverbal communication
1. impression management
2. forming and defining relationships
3. structuring conversation
4. influencing
5. expressing emotions
four groups of impressions
credibility: competency, believability
dominance: how powerful the individual is
nonverbal communication channels
body communication
facial communication
touch communication
paralanguage and silence
spatial messages
artifical communication
the study of communication through body movement; identifies 5 types: emblems, illustrators, affect displays, regulators, and adaptors
substitutes for words; signs for OK, peace, come here, be quiet
make your communications more vivid and help maintain your listener's attention; pointing up and saying "let's go up"
affect displays
movements of the face that convey emotional meaning; expressions that show anger/happiness
monitor, maintain, or control the speaking of another individual; they are culture-bound; they communicate what you expect "i don't believe that, are you sure?" "mmhmm" or "tsk"
satisfy some need and usually occur without conscious awareness
self-adaptors: satisfy a physical need
alter-adaptors: body movements in response to current interactions
object-adaptors: involve manipulation of an object
facial management techniques
enable you to communicate your feelings to achieve the effect you want:
visual dominance
most people maintain eye contact while listening and not while speaking, to signal dominance you reverse this; ex: keeping direct eye contact to an employee when reprimanding them
civil inattention
example: when you see a couple arguing, you say, "excuse me, i didn't mean to intrude"
dialated pupils are more attractive than constricted ones
tactile communication
communication by touch
tactile communication
communication by touch; most primitive form of communicaiton; aka haptics
5 meanings of touch
positive emotion
touch avoidance
tendency to avoid touch from certain people/circumstances
the vocal but nonverbal dimension of speech; ex sarcasm, infection
paralanguage includes vocal characteristics
communicates just as intensly as anything you verbalize
hurt others
time to think
response to personal anxiety
prevent communication
communicate emotional responses
achieve specific effects
nothing to say
spatial communication
intimate distance: 6-18"
personal distance: 18"-4'
social distance: 4-12'
public distance: 12-25'
protection theory
you establish a body buffer zone around yourself as protection against unwanted touching or attack
equilibrium theory
intimacy and interpersonal distance vary together; greater intimacy/closer distance, lower intimacy/greater distance
expectancy violations theory
explains what happens when you increase or decrease the distance between yourself and antoher in an interpersonal interaction; each culture has expectancies for the distance people are to maintain in their conversations
primary territories or home territories
areas that you might call your own (desk, room)
secondary territories
areas that don't belong to you but that you have occupied (office, classroom)
public territories
areas that are open to all people (park, mall)
central markers: placed to reserve a territory for you
boundary markers: divide your territory from others
ear markers: indicate possession (branding a cow)
home field advantage
when you operate in your own primary territory, you have an interpersonal advantage
territoria encroachment
status is signaled by the unwritten law granting the right of invasion; higher-status individuals have a "right" to invade the terrtory of lower status persons, but the reverse is not true. ex: boss can barge into manager's office
color communication
colors affect us physiologically; takes place on many levels
cultural display
clothing serves to communicate cultural and subcultural affiliations
olfactory communication; olfacts
when smells are pleasant you feel good about yourself, when they're bad you feel less good; you can smell 10,000 different odors different odors can do different things (lemon-health, lavender-alertness)
temporal communication
messages communicated by your time orientation and treatment of time
study of the communicative function of time
psychological time
a person's emphasis on, or orientation toward, the past, present, or future.
past orientation: reverence to the past
present: live in the present and for the present; hedonistic if extreme
future: preparing for the future
cultural display rules
rules about the appropriate display of emotions in public
cultural time
formal versus informal time and monochronism versus polychronism; also a culture's social clock
monochronic time orientation
schedule one thing at a time (USA)
polychronic time orientation
schedule multiple things at the same time (Latin America)