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26 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
language
symbolizes reality
intensional orientation
the tendency to view people, objects, and events in terms of how they're talked about or labeled rather than in terms of how they actually exist.
it's when labels are more important than what you're buying
extensional orientation
the tendency to look first at the actual people, objects, and events and then at the labels.
it's the tendency to be guided by what you see happening rather than by the way something or someone is talked about or labeled
cultural identifiers
preferred terms used to identify their cultural origins
ex: boy, girl, gay, lesbians, african american
e-prime
english without the verb be in any form (is, are, was, were, am) without it you describe events more accurately
allness
another way in which messages can fail to recognize that language only partially symbolizes reality. the world is infinitely complex, you can never say all there is to say about anything
nonallness attitude
if you recognie that there is more to learn, more to see, more to hear, you leave yourself open to this additional information, and you're better prepared to assimilate it
extensional device
helps you avoid allness
ex: end each statement with etc. as a reminder that there's more to know
fact-interference confusion
barriers to clear thinking can be created when inferences are treated as facts
factual statement
you can observe what is happening -fact
inferential statement
a statement that you make solely on the basis of what you observe plus your own conclusions
pragmatic implications
an inference that is probably but not necessarily true
denotation
objective definition
connotation
subjective or emotional meaning
indiscrimination
a form of stereotyping, occurs when you focus on classes of individuals/objects/events and fail to see that each is unique and needs to be looked at individually
index
a useful antidote to indiscrimination: a spoken or mental subscript that identifies each individual in a group as an individual
ethnocentrism
the tendency to evaluate the values, beliefs, and behaviors of your own culture as being more positive, logical, and natural than those of other cultures
polarization
the fallacy of either/or; the tendency to look at the world and to describe it in terms of extremes: good/bad, pos/neg
static evaluation
when you retain an evaluation, despite the changes in the person or thing
date
to guard against static evaluation, mentally date your statements and keep track of progress
disconfirmation
a communication pattern in which you ignore a person's presence as well as that person's communications; they basically aren't worth serious attention
confirmation
you not only acknowledge the presence of the other person but also indicate your acceptance
rejection
you disagree with the person
sexist langauge
language that tends to disconfirm members of one gender
heterosexist langauge
language that disparages lesbians and gay men
ex: qualifying their description as the "gay doctor"
ageism
discrimination based on age