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105 Cards in this Set

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James Lange Theory
Emotions result from perceiving bodily reactions or responses (THEORY)
Cannon-Bard Theory
Emotions and bodily reactions occur simultaneously; messages sent to hypothalamus (body arousal) and limbic system (anxiety experience) (THEORY)
Schacter's Two-Factor Theory
Emotions result from both internal information (hypothalamus & limbic system) and external information (context); first you experience physiological arousal and second you look to the environment to help you label the emotion appropriately (THEORY)
Selye's General Adaptation Syndrome
Model or response to severe stress: (1) alarm, (2) resistance, (3) exhaustion
Criterion Contamination
Occurs when the criterion is subjectively scored and the rater has knowledge of the employee's predictor scores; Results in spuriously high criterion-related validity coefficient
Suprachiasmic nucleus (SNA)
Functions as circadian clock; Signals the pineal gland (also located in the hypothalamus) to produce melatonin, which causes drop in body temperature and sleepiness
Substantia nigra
Loss of cells in this area has been implicated in Parkinson's disease
Reticular Activating System (RAS)
Filters incoming sensory information and can activate person into state of alert wakefulness; Consists of a set of cells in the medulla, pons, hypothalamus, and thalamus
K Scale
MMPI-2 scale that measures guardedness or defensiveness; serves as a moderator variable
L Scale
MMPI-2 scale that measures a naive attempt to present favorably
F Scale
MMPI-2 Scale that measures frequently endorsed items and can be used to assess overall distress and pathology, attempts to fake bad, or random responding
VRIN and TRIN Scales
MMPI-2 Scale that specifically measures response inconsistency or random responding
Using deception in research-subject consent rules
Consent from subjects must be obtained before they partcipate in the research
Problems that can occur when using selection tests in hiring decision
1. Differential validity (obtaining different criterion-related validity coefficients for 2 different groups; research finds it to be relatively rare and due to small sample size)
2. Adverse impact
3. Unfairness
James Marcia's Stages of Adolescent Identity
FORECLOSURE:commitment w/absence of crisis
INDENTITY ACHIEVEMENT: resolved crisis and made commitment
MORATORIUM: crisis and absence of commitment
IDENTITY DIFFUSION: absence of both crisis and commitment
Standard Error of Estimate (i.e., Prediction): What affects it?
1. Standard deviation of the criterion (direct relationship: the larger te SD, the larger the error)
2. Criterion-related validity (indirect relationship: high validity, low error in prediction)
Freud and Skinner share common views about...
Both believe that behavior is determined (one--psychically, one--by contingencies)
Sensate focus
A classical conditioning intervention that involves counterconditioning; person learns new response (e.g., pleasurable feelings) that is incompatible with a problematic response (e.g., performance anxiety)
Aversive counterconditioning
Involves pairing a pleasurable but problematic conditioned stimulus (e.g., taste of alcohol) with a more powerful, aversive stimulus (e.g., antabuse--vomiting)
Variables affecting crowding
Men are generally more affected than women; tends to heighten overall arousal for both positive and negative emotions; cultural variables; noise and temperature
Ct reveals sexual relations with previous therapist who you know personally--what to do?
Discuss available options with client
Protocol analysis
Involves subjects verbalizing their thought process as they perform a task; the goal is to better understand the person's cognitive process, especially concerning problem-solving
Dismantling strategy
Analyzing various components of a treatment separately to understand which components account for a treatment effect
Why is there a high failure rate in treating addictive behaviors?
Addictive behaviors are considered to be self-reinforcing in that the person does not depend on any external reinforcement
What neurotransmitter is involved with both sleep and mood?
Serotonin

(Ach: voluntary mvmt and memory; Dopamine: Schizophrenia)
T score of 70
Equals z score of +2 and 98th percentile rank
Qualities of the preoperational child
1. Egocentric
2. Relies on intuitive thought rather than logical/deductive reasoning
3. Increasingly uses symbolic activity
Behavioral contrast
Two behaviors are initially reinforced at equal levels and then one behavior stops being reinforced: SKINNER
Stages of Sleep
Relaxed Wakefulness: ALPHA
Early Stage 1: THETA
Stages 3 & 4: DELTA (slow/deep sleep)
REM sleep: rapid eye mvmt, increased respiration and heart rate, relaxed muscle tone
Response Cost
When someone loses something for misbheavior; involves taking something away ("negative") and it is designed to decrease an unacceptable behavior ("punishment")
The range of the standard error of measurement
From 0 to the standard deviation of the test (SDx)
The range of the validity coefficient
From -1 to +1
The range of the reliability coefficient
From 0 to +1
The range of the standard error of estimate
From 0 to the standard deviation of the criterion (SDy)
3 Key variables that affect incremental validity
1. Base rate (the rate of successful hiring w/o using a test; moderate base rate optimizes incremental validity)
2. Selection ratio (the ration of # of openings to # of applicants; low selection ratio optimizes incremental validity)
3. Criterion-related validity (the correlation between scores on the test and scores on some outcome measure of performance or productivity; the higher the criterion-related validity, the better the incremental validity; DIRECT INFLUENCE)
Effects on children of mothers working
Less rigid sex roles
Kohlberg's 3 major levels of moral development (w/two substage divisions)
1. PRECONVENTIONAL MORALITY (emphasis on compliance w/rules to avoid punishment and get rewards): Punishment-Obedience, Instrumental Hedonism
2. CONVENTIONAL MORALITY (focus on conforming to rules to get social approval)-Good Boy/Good Girl, Law and Order
3. POSTCONVENTIONAL MORALITY (Morality of Contract, Rights and Laws, Morality of Conscience)
Neurotransmitter(s) implicated in depression
Norepinephrine and Serotonin
Neurotransmitter(s)implicated in anxiety
Low levels of GABA
Neurotransmitter(s) implicated in schizophrenia
Excess of dopamine (sometimes norepinephrine and seortonin linked too)
Sue & Sue's model of Racial/Cultural Identity
1. CONFORMITY
2. DISSONANCE
3. RESISTANCE & IMMERSION
4. INTROSPECTION
5. INTEGRATIVE AWARENESS
ETHICS: Aspirational? Enforceable?
General principles=aspirational
Standards=enforceable
Margaret Mahler's Development Theory
1st month: Autistic phase
2-4: symbiotic phase
4-5: separation-individuation process begins
5-10: differentiation (includes stranger anxiety)
10-16: practicing (includes separation anxiety)
16-24: rapprochement
24-36: consolidation and object constancy
Psychotherapy outcome is most influenced by...
Client factors (e.g., diagnoses, motivation for change, etc.)
Concordance rate for identical twins with Bipolar Disorder?
75-80% concordance rate
The defense mechanism that is thought to underlie all others...
Repression (making the conscious unconscious)
[Denial=most primitive]
Adverse impact
Occurs when the % of minorities hired is less than 4/5ths of the percentage of non-minorites hired
What will tend to increase the standard error of the mean?
Increasing the standard deviation of the population and reducing the sample size (Standard error of the mean has a direct rltnshp with the SD of the population and an indirect rltnshp with sample size)
People with eating disorders typically have low levels of...(NT)
Low levels of serotonin and norepinephrine
Parkinson's Disease is linked with...(NT)
Low levels of dopamine
Components of the basal ganglia include...
Substantia nigra and caudate nucleus; damage to the substantia nigra results in Parkinson's Disease
Brown vs. Board of Education
NAACP took up case on behalf of Linda Brown (5th gr black girl) not admitted to white elementary school in Topeka, KS; Thurgood Marshall (NAACP counsel); John Davis (argued on behalf of the defendant school officials); Professor Kenneth Clark of City College of NY (created and perofrmed innovative psycholigical tests using dolls)
Retrograde Amnesia
Loss of memory for events occuring BEFORE the trauma (retro=backward)
Anterograde Amnesia
Loss of memory for events occurring AFTER the trauma (ignore prefix "ante")
Self-Perception Theory
Focuses on people's tendencies to look outside of the self when they don't know the cause of their own behavior
Freud and Erikson: Development Theories
1st yr: ORAL: Trust and Mistrust
2nd yr: ANAL : Autonomy vs. Shame
3-6 yrs: PHALLIC : Initiative vs. Guilt
6-12 yrs: LATENCY : Industry vs. Inferiority
Beck
Founder of Cognitive Therapy: "automatic thinking" and "logical errors"
Ellis
Founder of Rational-Emotive Therapy: "irrational beliefs"
Meichenbaum
Founder of the Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy: "positive self-statements"; also developed Self-Instructional Therapy which combines modeling and graduated practice with elements of Rational-Emotive therapy to help cts who have problems with task completion (widely used with ADHD)
Reciprocity Hypothesis
People tend to like others who like them (THEORY)
Matching Hypothesis
People of approximately equal physical attractiveness are likely to select each other (THEORY)
Similarity Hypothesis
People similar to each other tend to form intimate relationships (THEORY)
Relationship between satisfaction and performance
Weak and positive
Relationship between satisfaction and length of employment
Moderate and positive
Freud and Erikson: Development Theories
1st yr: ORAL: Trust and Mistrust
2nd yr: ANAL : Autonomy vs. Shame
3-6 yrs: PHALLIC : Initiative vs. Guilt
6-12 yrs: LATENCY : Industry vs. Inferiority
Obessive Compulsive Disorder Prevalence Rates
Lifetime prevalence rate: 2.5%
Overall, males and females are affected equally but males have a modal age of onset that is earlier than females (males: 6-15 yrs; females: 20-29 yrs)
Beck
Founder of Cognitive Therapy: "automatic thinking" and "logical errors"
Ellis
Founder of Rational-Emotive Therapy: "irrational beliefs"
Meichenbaum
Founder of the Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy: "positive self-statements"; also developed Self-Instructional Therapy which combines modeling and graduated practice with elements of Rational-Emotive therapy to help cts who have problems with task completion (widely used with ADHD)
Reciprocity Hypothesis
People tend to like others who like them (THEORY)
Matching Hypothesis
People of approximately equal physical attractiveness are likely to select each other (THEORY)
Similarity Hypothesis
People similar to each other tend to form intimate relationships (THEORY)
Relationship between satisfaction and performance
Weak and positive
Relationship between satisfaction and length of employment
Moderate and positive
Obessive Compulsive Disorder Prevalence Rates
Lifetime prevalence rate: 2.5%
Overall, males and females are affected equally but males have a modal age of onset that is earlier than females (males: 6-15 yrs; females: 20-29 yrs)
Two-way ANOVA
Calculate 3 F ratios; 2 possible main effects (for Variable A and Variable B), and a possible interactiona effect; significance can be due to any combination of main effects and interactions; advantage over two separate one-way ANOVAS=possibility of detecting the interaction effect
Kluver-Bucy Syndrome
Results from lesions in the amygdala, which is a limbic structure found in the temporal lobe. Features: placidity, apathy, hyperphagia (increased eating), hypersexuality, and agnosias
Consultation for Theme-Interference Problems
Problems that the supervisee (or consultee) is experiencing that can affect patients' progress; CONSULTEE-CENTERED CASE CONSULTATION
Adaptation
Piaget coined this term; the process by which a person adjusts to the environment using two complementary processes: assimilation & accomodation
Assimilation
Involves incorporating a new experiencing into an already existing mental structure
Accomodation
Involves modifying or expanding a cognitive structure or schema to take in new information
Equilibration
Refers to the striving toward balance between the person and the outside environment, as wel as among the person's schemata
APA Ethics Code: Soliciting and using testimonials
It is permissible to solicit and use testimonials as long as they are not solicited from current patients or those vulnerable to undue influence.
ABAB Design
Type of single subject design in which the person is 1st measured over time during a baseline period (A), then treatment is implemented and the person is measured repeatedly during intervention period (B). Tx is removed and person is remeasured at baseline (A) then tx is reapplied (B) and person is measured again. Offers good control over history and maturation. A key problem=possiblity that outcome measure will fail to return to baseline once person has been exposed to 1st part of the tx.
Focus of Neo-Freudians
How social and cultural factors influence and shape personality.
Focus of Classical Analysts
Underlying unconscious conflicts
Focus of Ego Analysts
Ego defensive and conflict-free functioning
Focus of Cognitive Behaviorists
Beliefs
Substances with withdrawal symptoms including hallucinations...
Alcohol and the category of sedatives, hypnotics, and anxiolytics; withdrawal from these substances can potentially be fatal
Withdrawal from amphetamines
Dysphoria, fatigue, unpleasant dreams, increased appetite, psychomotor agitation or retardation
Withdrawal from opioids
Flu-like symptoms
A psychologist who observes harassment in the workplace should...
Do something about it. This is required. Just talking to the person being harassed is not enough.
The most likely outcome for a child with a reading disorder is...
to still have reading problems as an adult (although it may resolve for some individuals)
Reliability coefficient
Provides information about the repeatability or consistency of the test data
A test with criterion-related validity can be used to...
predict how subjects will perform on an outcome measure
What would be the best measure of central tendency if in a timed test of mechanical skills, 25% took the maximum allowed amount of time?
Generally the mean is the best measure of central tendency, but the median is better when there are either some very extreme scores or a substantial percentage of maximum scores.
Idiosyncracy credits
Refers to a group's tolerance of an individual's disregard for group norms. The can be earned by initially conforming to the group norms.
Yalom's Stages of Group Development
FIRST STAGE: hesitant participation, search for meaning, dependency
SECOND STAGE: conflicts, efforts at dominance, rebellion against the leader
THIRD STAGE: development of cohesiveness
The Holmes and Rahe Social Readjustment Rating Scale (1967)
43 stressful events: death of spouse (100 pts), divorce (73 pts), marriage (50 pts), retirement (45 pts), death of a close friend (37), foreclosure (30)
Approach-Approach Conflict
Person must choose between two desirable alternatives and, subsequent to choosing, slightly devaluels to alternative not chosen
Approach-Avoidance Conflict
Individual is both drawn to and repelled by the same alternative.
Self-Serving Bias
Predicts the kinds of attributions we make for our successes (internal) versus our failures (external)
Reciprocity hypothesis
Explains how people choose their mates
Respondent conditioning
Another name for classical conditioning
Instrumental conditioning
Another name for operant conditioning