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75 Cards in this Set

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At what age do sleep spindles appear
around 2 months
pacemaker for sleep/wake cycle resides in the
suprachiasmatic nuclei.
Records airflow by changes in air temperature
Thermistors.
Strain gauges used in NPT's are made of
silastic tubing filled with mercury.
high impedances, electrically noisy environment and poor electrode contact are all causes of what?
60 hz interference
High filter setting for emg
90 hz, or highest available.
Ratio of REM activity to REM time
REM density
A filter effect on waveforms causing there peaks to appear to shift to a different point in time.
phase shift
Lowering the HFF shifts the waves to the right causing them to appear slightly __________.
Later
Increasing the LFF creates a shift to the left causing them to appear slightly __________.
earlier
Amplitude range expressed by the deflection of the pens
dynamic range
T-wave represents
ventricular repolarization.
An intrusion of alpha activity superimposed on delta slow wave sleep
alpha-delta
A pattern of breathing wtih gradual increase in depth and sometimes in rate to a maximum followed by a decrease to temporary cessation (apnea)
Cheyne-Stokes
The content of gas remaining in the lungs at the end of a normal respiration
Functional Residual capacity
A pt's maximum breathing ability is represented by
Vital capacity.
The P-wave represents
atrial depolarization
Does a PET scan show structures of the brain?
NO
Essential for initiation and maintenance of wakefulness
Reticular activating system
other names for rem sleep
Paradoxical sleep,
desynchronized sleep
active sleep
dream sleep
OSA in children suppresses
slow wave sleep
osa in adults suppresses
REM sleep.
REM with no movement
Tonic REM
Eye movements and twitching during REM
Phasic REM
characteristics of REM
Variable heart rate.
decreased temperature
irregular respirations
decrease muscle tone
What do Tricyclic antidepressants do to REM sleep
Supresses rem sleep
The electrode closest to the cornea becomes...
postive causing a downward deflection.
Other than narcolepsy when are sleep onset rem periods seen
Newborns
schizophrenics
drug withdrawal.
On an NPT if one gauge pen falls below the baseline, a likely cause would be that the gauge is
too large
sleep related seizures may also present as
enuresis
pavor nocturnus
somnoambulism
site of airway closure
pharynx
A small current which flows along an undesired circuit path usually to the ground
leakage current
Name 3 drugs that suppress REM
MAO inhibitors
benzodiazepines
tricyclic antidepressants
biological marker of depression
Short REM latency
Chronic use of sleeping pills cause
Decrease in stages 3, 4 and REM.
Reduced K-complexes and spindles
Increased stage 1 and 2.
Which type of antidepressant aggrevates myoclonus
Tricyclic antidepressants
What percentage of newborn sleep does REM occupy
50%
Sweating is absent in...
REM
Patient's who develop a 25-27 hour biological clock are said to have a
hypernycothermal syndrome
peak incidence of SIDS is
2-4 months
maximum amount of gas the lungs can contain
Total lung capacity
The narcoleptic tetrad consists of what?
Sleep attacks
cataplexy
sleep paralysis
hypnogogic hallucinations
Chronic alcoholism decreases what stage of sleep
REM
During an action potential _______ _________ is increased first then __________.
Sodium permeability
potassium.
What agent is effective for sterilization of electrodes used on AID's patient's
Sodium hypochloride
Normal Arterial P02 value is
80-100 mmHg
normal arterial PCo2 is
40-50 mmHg
Time in weeks of growth in the uterus
gestational age
How much does body temperature fall at sleep onset.
1 degree
When is lowest body temperature
3-4 hours before awakening.
Circadian rhythm is first set by ______ and then by ________.
Light
temperature
K-complexes appear between
4-6 months
age from conception to birth
gestational age
gestational age plus time in weeks since birth
conceptional age.
Can be used to further differentiate between central and obstructive apneas
esophageal pressure monitors and intercostal emg.
T_____ is a common frequency seen in pediatric eeg
theta
origin of alpha activity
occipital area
best area for identifying sleep patterns
central area
least likely area to display alpha
frontal area
Respiration artifact is
high amplitude, low frequency
electrical artifact is high or low frequency
high frequency
Rise in Co2 indicates
rebreathing of CO2
indicates a decreasing system or pulmonary fusion, hypothermia, sedation, hyperventilation, hypovolemia, decreasing cardiac output
decrease in co2
normal range for ETCO2
35-45 mmHg.
End tidal co2 is measured at the _____ of respiration
end
3 ways Co2 is transported in the blood
1. 5-10% as gas. Reflected by PCO2.
2. 20-30% is bound to blood proteins. The major one being hemoglobin.
3. 60-70% is carried as bicarbonate (HCo3)
indicator of organic brain disease.
excessive delta
Name of antigen indicative of narcolepsy
DR2
maximum time for MSLT naps if pt. does fall asleep
34 minutes
Pavor nocturnus
night terrors
pressure of the pens
dampening
Stabilizes the pen position between the on/off position. Puts amplifier at electrical 0 position.
electrical baseline
Adusts the difference between pen times and pen angle
mechanical baseline
What is overlap syndrome
OSA and COPD together
COPD pt's retain what
Co2