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37 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
How many stages of sleep are there?

1. Stage 1
2. Stage 2
3. Stage 3
4. Stage 4
5. REM
Stages 1 through 4 nonREM sleep appear how on an EEG?
High voltage with slow activity
REM sleep appears how on an EEG?
Low voltage with relatively fast activity
What is the cycle of sleep?
Stage 1, 2, 3, 4, REM, then all over again.

As the night progresses, however, Stage 4 becomes less frequent and the REM periods last longer.
During which sleep stage is a person typically dreaming?
During REM sleep.
What stage is also known as "paradoxical sleep?"

Because even though it is a deeper stage of sleep than Stage 4, in some ways it more closely resembles the awake state.
The EEG of REM sleep resembles that of awake activity.

It is easier to wake a person from Stage 3 or 4 sleep than from REM sleep.

The medulla has been identified as an important structure for sleep production.


Lesions in certain regions of the medulla can markedly reduce sleep.
What are "nonREM-on cells?"
Anterior hypothalamic neurons (GABAergic neurons in the ventrolateral preoptic area of the hypothalamus), which inhibit histaminergic activating systems that project to the forebrain and to the brainstem.
Sleep disorders are classified into two major groups. What are they?
1. Narcolepsy
2. Insomnia
What is narcolepsy?
It is characterized by excessive sleep or brief inappropriate episodes of sleep, often associated with other symptoms.
What is insomnia?
It is characterized by an inadequate amount of sleep, an inability to fall asleep, or frequent inconvenient arousals from sleep.
What kind of medications have been found to help with narcolepsy?
1. Amphetaminelike stimulants
2. Tricyclic antidepressants
What are four types of narcolepsy disorders?
1. Sleep attacks
2. Cataplexy
3. Sleep paralysis
4. Hypnagogic or hypnapompic hallucinations
What are sleep attacks?
Brief, often irrisistable episodes of sleep that usually last about 15 minutes and can occur anytime.
Sleep attacks only occur during times of boredom or after meals.


Sleep attacks can occur during activities such as sex, scuba diving, or baseball games.
What is cataplexy?
It is a complete loss of muscle tone or a sudden paralysis that results in "buckling" of the knees or complete collapse.
During a cataplexy attack, does the person stay conscious?

If the eyelids are open or are opened, the person can even recall visual events that occurred during the attack.
When do cataplexic attacks usually occur?
During emotional excitement, such as when laughing or when angry.
How can one prevent cataplexic attacks?
By maintaining tight control of ones' emotions.
What is sleep paralysis?
It is an episode of paralysis that occurs at the transition periods between wakefulness and sleep.

It appears that the person wakes up, but is still in the state of paralysis associated with dream sleep.
How can one terminate sleep paralysis?
By grunting.
What are hypnagogic hallucinations?
They are episodes of auditory, visual, or tactile hallucinations that occur during sleep paralysis as the individual is falling asleep.
What are hypnapompic hallucinations?
They are episodes of auditory, visual, or tactile hallucinations that occur during paralysis as teh individual is awakening.
What are some factors that are responsible for or related to insomnia?
1. Nightmares
2. Sleep apnea
3. Restless-leg syndrome
4. Myoclonus
5. Drug-inducing insomnia
6. Insomnia due to brain damage
How are nightmares differentiated from night terrors?
Nightmares occur during REM sleep, while night terrors occur during Stage 4 non-REM sleep.
What waves are observed during the awake stage?
1. During vigilant/alert wakefulness - mixed alpha (8-13 waves/sec) and beta (>13 waves/sec) activity accompanied by fast eye activity.

2. Predominantly alpha activity (low amplitude, high frequency) during relaxation.
What waves are observed during Stage 1 non-REM sleep?
Theta waves (medium amplitude, 4-7 waves/sec).

Stage 1 is usually brief and is a transition between wakefulness and Stage 2.
What waves are observed during Stage 2 non-REM sleep?
Theta waves (medium amplitude, 4-7 waves/sec) predominantly, with the introduction of K-complexes and brief bursts of beta activity (aka, sleep spindles).
What waves are observed during Stage 3 non-REM sleep?
Delta waves (high amplitude/low frequency, <4 waves/sec).

AKA "Slow wave sleep"

Stage 3 is usually brief and is a transition between 2 and 4.
What waves are observed during Stage 4 non-REM sleep?
Delta wave (high amplitude/low frequency, <4 waves/sec) predominate.

AKA "Deep sleep" and "Slow wave sleep"
With age, slow-wave and REM sleep increases.


With age, slow-wave and REM actually decrease, leaving mostly light sleep.
In healthy adults, what is the percentage of sleep one would have in each stage?
Stage 2 = 50%
Stage 4 = 10-15%
REM = ~25%
Poor sleep can affect what areas of functioning?
1. Attention
2. Vigilance
3. Coordination
4. Emotion regulation
5. Memory retrieval
6. Aspects of executive functioning
What are some factors that may lead to sleep disturbance?
1. Neurologic injury to any part of the broad system that is responsible for sleep (including brainstem through the diencephalon and limbic system)

2. Psychotropic medications
Is sleep an important factor in epilepsy?

Sleep deprivation can promote seizures.

Seizures can occur during sleep.