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43 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
ENTERPRISE ZONE
areas of community that offer special government incentives to stimulate investment
INCORPORATION
charter granted from state to creat municipality
IN-KIND PROGRAMS
non-cash welfare (food stamps, welfare)
BOARD OF SUPERVISORS
Label used in counties for the governing board
STRATEGIC PLANNING
emphasizes future events and changing conditions
STRONG-MAYOR-COUNCIL
STRUCTURE
Mayor has power to veto city council and perform executive functions
VICTIMLESS CRIME
illegal act that does no one harm
FISCAL STRESS
financial pressure resulting from adverse social economic conditions
AMENITIES
comfort and comveniences that contribute to quality of life
HOME-RULE
Granted power from state to local government
SOCIAL INSURANCE
recipients contribute financally through SSI
SHADOW GOVERNMENTS
funtion like government but are unofficial
INCENTIVE PACKAGES
enticements offered to retain or attract business and industry
CHARTER
Document that sets out a city's structure, authority, and functions
GRAND JURY
appointed citizens examine evidence to determine if a person will go to trial
MANDATE-REIMBURSEMENT
REQUIREMENTS
requires states to reimburse local government for any state mandate or give adequate revenue
SCHOOL CHOICE
permits individual selection of a school a child will attend
WEAK-MAYOR-COUNCIL
STRUCTURE
Mayor lacks executive power:city council is source of executive and legislative power
INDICTMENT
formal written accusation submitted to court by grand jury alleging a specific crime
PROPORTIONAL (FLAT) TAX
people pay tax rate regardless of income or economic transaction
GENTRIFICATION
replaces low-end land with upscale uses
DISTRICT (WARD)
ELECTIONS
Election when voters determine a representative for the district
SUBSIDY
financial help given by a goverment to a business
GREENBELTS
limited development in open space
CITY MANAGER
Hired by city council to handle daily operation of city
TAXATION AND EXPENDITURE
LIMITATIONS (TELS)
restrictions on taxing and spending for state and local
PUBLIC AUTHORITY
governed by appointed board, special district funded by nontax revenue
PROGRESSIVE TAX
rate rises as base or taxable income rises
REFORM MOVEMENT
movement to "depoliticize" local governments. ex.) non -partisan elections, shorter ballots...
PROGRESSIVE ERA
Focused on reforming on cleaning up the environment
TOWN MEETING
yearly meeting residents from towns make decisions on policies concerning their town.
INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT BOND
(IDB)
type of revenue bond
AT-LARGE
ELECTIONS
City voters vote to decide members of city council
URBAN SPRAWL
development characterized ny low population density, rapid land consumption, and dependence on the automobile
PLURALIST THEORY
theory that power is dispersed among competing groups clash produces societal rule
REVENUE BOND
backed up by expected income from specific project or service
ELITE THEORY
theory that small group of "elite" leaders posess power and rule society
ALDERMEN
City council members
NON PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS
private sector groups that carry out religious, charitable, educational functions
TAX EFFORT
degreee a state exploits its fiscal potential
REGRESSIVE TAX
places greater burden on low income than on high income
IMPACT FEE
fee levied by government on developers. Intended to shift some social costs of growth to developer
TAX CAPACITY
potential ability to raise revenues from taxes