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40 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What shape of maculopapular
Flat to slightly raised colored bumps
What disease that causing warts?
human papillomaviruses
The cause of River blindness
A chronic protozoan infection
Ringworm
caused by cutaneous mycoses
Conjunctiva
the thin membrane-like tissue that cover most of the eye
Vesicles
small, fluid-filled lesions
Bullae
Larger vesicles; bubble
Macules
flat, reddened lesions
Maculopapular
combines macular and popular characteristics
papules
Pustules
raised reddened lesions;
if filled with pus
Mucous membranes
lining of body cavities; tightly packed EPITHELIAL CELLS attached to a membrane; many of these cells secrete mucous; often ACIDIC; in the eyes are mechanically washed by tears containing LYSOZYME
characteristics of Normal Microbiota of the Skin
Resistant to drying and relatively high salt concentrations
Name Three main categories of Normal microbiota of the skin
Diptheroids: club-shaped bacteria
Micrococci: including staphylococci-most commonly coagulase-negative S. epidermidis and streptococci
Yeast: nosocomial infection candida albicans
What test used to differentiate S. aureus
Coagulase(-): 90% of the normal microbiota that do not cause disease unless the skin is broken; S. epidermidis predominat of these
Coagulase (+) : almost all pathogenic strains of S. aureus; clots firin in plasma and blood and may protect the bacteria from phagocytosis
What media used for coagulase test
rabbit sebum or plasma
M protein
produced by S. pyogenes binds plasminogen which causes the bacterium to produce streptokinase
Capability of Streptokinase enzyme?
changes plasminogen into plasmin
important concept of STREPTOKINASE
it produced by beta-hemolytic streptococcus is used as an effective and cheap CLOT-DISSOLVING MEDICATION in some cases of MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION (heart attack) AND PULMONARY EMBOLISM
CELLULITIS
INFECTION OF THE DERMIS and subcutaneous tissue usually caused by S. aureus or S. pyogenes but can be caused by other pathogenic bacteria or fungi; pain, swelling, fever, LYMPHANGITIS (red streaks leading away from the away, sometimes called blood poisoning), can lead to BACTEREMIA; treatment is aggressive oral or IV antibiotics
Staphylococcal Scalded Skin Syndrome
usually with children under two; very serious; blistering SYMPTOMS CAUSED BY EXFLOLIATE TOXINS A& B that the bacteria has acquired from certain phage types->transduction+lysogeny; mainly spread by asymptomatic carriers; treatment with antibiotics
What caused Gas gangrene?
Clostridium perfringens
when bacterium enters tissue through a surgical incision, compound fracture, diabetic ulcers, septic abortions, puncture and gunshot wounds, and crushing injuries
Name the virus that caused Measles
MACULAROPAPULAR RASH
7 days measles; vaccine MMR given at 12-15 mos.
Koplick's spots in the oral mucosa (white center) diagnostic
dangerous in very young and very old-deafness, pneumonia, subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE)
SHINGLES
also called Herpes Zoster, Herpes virus HHV-3 or varicella zoster; Vesicles similar to checkenpox localized around the waist, or face, upper chest and back; usually limited to one side of the body; can be serious impairing vision or causing paralysis; painful
Herpetic keratitis
cornea of the eye infected
Fifth Disease
Human parvovirus B19
common childhood disease presenting as very flushes cheeks:SLAPPED CHEEK and a lacy MACULAR RASH on the trunk, may also have a slight fever malaise, or cold; resolves in 7-10 days; adults may have the rash and joint swelling; fifth on the list of skin rashes
Roseola
HH6
affects babies and toddlers from 6-24 mos.; high fever until the fourth day, as it falls a MACULAR RASH appears
Fungal diseases : MYCOSIS
Cutaneous mycoses
Ringworm (athlete's Foot/ Jock Itch)
Caused by 3 fungal genera :
Trichophyton, Microsporum, Epidermophyton
Virulence: BREAKDOWN OF KERATIN BY KERATINASE the primary protein of the epidermal tissues of vertebrates (skin, nails, hair, feathers, horns) -->waterproofing
Reservoirs: other humans, animals, and soil; some species are zoonotic
Treatment: LONG TERM (WKS +) WITH OTC TOPICAL OINTMENTS
CANDIDIASIS
Candida albicans
Juvenile and Plantar Warts
caused by >65 types of PAPILLOMAVIRUS
Treatment: cryotherapy, electrodesiccation, burning, lasers create a virus-laden aerosol
Alternatives: aspirin at site; tagament; duct tape
Molluscum contagiosum
caused by a poxvirus that causes bumps that look like smooth, waxy nodules;
common in AIDS patients and often on the face
Ubiquitous
Oral cavity, genitalia, large intestine, and /or skin
Thrush (fungal)
a white patchy infection affecting the mucous membranes of the oral cavity; common infection in the mouth of newborns& the elderly
Candidiasis
or
Yeast infection
discharge, inflammation, painful ulcerations, and itching; Vaginal infections (possibly an STD), skin infections (diaper rash)
Esophageal candidiasis
HIV complication; painful, bleeding ulcerations, perforations, nausea, and vomiting
Candidal blood infection
an opportunist, causing more deaths than any other fungal infection
Intestinal yeast
long term antibiotic use and high sugar diet; problems with netal clarity
Treatment for fungal and yeast diseases
Nystatin (Mycostatin)
Skin-amphotericin B
Systemic infection;
OTC for yeast infection: imidazole or ketoconazole ointment
Diflucan pill
Risk of infection elevated on
Yeast and fungal infection
infants, PREGNANCY, hormonal changes, use of birth control or ANTIBIOTICS, immunodeficiency, surgery, trauma, DIABETICS
What caused
Scabies?
Sarcoptes scabiei (parasitic)
A BURROWING MITE, treated with Kwell;chronic,
under-diagnosed giving the phrase the seven year itch
conjunctivitis
bacterial or viral