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42 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Layers of the eidermis
stratums corneum, lucidum, granulosum, spinosm basalis
Autoantibodies to epithelial cell junction proteins
desmosomes- pemphigus

Hemidesmosome (on BM)- bullous pemphigoid
Patient recieves a blow from lateral side, results in this unhappy triad...
What is the MCL, ACL and lateral meniscus

Note anterior and posterior refers to location of tibial attachment
Bones of the wrist
Some lovers try positions they can't handle

scaphoid, lunate, triquetrium, pisiform, trapezoid, capitate, hamate
Nerve that gets compressed in armpitty w/ improprer crutch use
radial after it bracnhes off the posterior cord

Randy Travis Drinks Cold Beer

Roots trunks, divisions, chords, branches
Damage to...

1. axillary nerve
2. radial nerve
3. musculocutaneous nerve
1. fractured humeral neck or IM infgection, deltoid
2. fracutre of midshaft humerus or improper crutch use, lose extensors
3. upper trunk compression, lose flexors of arm
Thoracic outlet syndrome
cervical rib compresses subclavian artery and inferior trunk affects C8, T1, causes trophy of thena and hypothenar eminance, disareance of radial pulse upon moving head to same side, sensory defect on medial side, calw hand
Steps of skeletal musle contraction
1. action potential opens voltage gated Ca channels leading to NT release
2. postynaptic ligand binding leads to muscle depolarization, travels along T-tubule
3. depolarizaiton of voltage sensitive DHP receptors couple to ryanodine recetro on SR induces change causing rlease of Ca from SR
4. released calcium binds torpnin moving rtropomyosin out of groove on actin filaments
5. releases bound AD and is displaced causing power stroke, A band doesn;t change, H,I and Z shrink
Smooth muscle contraction
AP causes SMC membrane depolarizaiton, opens voltage cgated calcium channels, calcium binds to calmodulin, actvates myosin light-chain kinase, phosphorylates myosin to form cross-bridge and contract, myosic light chain phoshpaytase dephosphorlates leading to relaxation
Paget's disease
increased osteoblast/clast activity, possibly post-viral

elevated alk phos, mosaic bone pattern, more prone to fracturesm can cause osteogenic sarcoma
McCunbe-Albriugt syndrome
polyostotic fibrous disypalsia with multiple uniulateral bone lesions associated with endocrine probs and cafe-au-lait sots
Benign tumors of bone
giant cell tumor- locally aggressive, most ogften around distal femur, proximal tibia, double bublle on x-ray

Osteochondroma- most common benign tumor, young males, mature bone with cartilaginous ca
Malignant tumors of bone with buzzwords
osteosarcoma- Codman's triange (sunburst) pattern, poor prognosis, young males, seen with Paget;s retinoblastoma

Ewin's sarcoma- boys under 15, onion skinning, mets early, anaplastic smal blue cell tumor

Chondrosarcoma- adult males, malignant cartilaginous tumor, glistening mass within medullary cavity
RA classic presentation
morning stiffness over 30 mins, improves with use, symmetric, systemic symtpoms

RF- anti-IgG antibody, HLA-DR4, pannus formation

PIP and MCP joints
Pseudohout caused by...
calcium pyrophoshate crstals, perpendicular yellow, parrallel blue to light, opposite of uric acid, tx is NSAIDs
Reactive arthtritis
Conjuctivitis, urethritis, arthritis, most likely chlamydia infection HLAB-27
Gonococcal urethritis
monoarticular, migratory arthritis, asymmetrical pattern, affected joint is swolen red and painful, staph, strep and neiseria
Antibodies in SLE
False psitve RPR/VDRL d/t antiphospholipid antibodies

ANA- screening

Antismith and dsDNA- specific

Histone- drug induced
immune nmediated noncaseating granulomas, associated with restrictive lung disease, Schamanna and steroid bodies, hypercalcemia, tx is steroids
Lambert-Eaton syndrome
autoantibodies to presynaptic Calcium channels, decreased ACh release leading to proximal muscle weakenss


improves with muscle use
progressive symmetric proximal muscle weakness, CD8 T-cell induced, positive ANA, anti-Jo-1

dermatomyositis also includes skin lesions (heliotre, increased risk of malignancy)
Scleroderma vs. CREST
Scleroderma is widespread- face Scl-70

CREST- just CREST, anti-centromere antibody
SJS- fever, bula, sloughing of skin, high mortality, usually d.
- fever, bula, sloughing of skin, high mortality, usually d/t drug reaction
Prurotoc papules and vsicles associated with celiac disease... pathophys?
IgA depositis at dermal papilla seen with dermatitis herpetiformus
Squamous cell carcinoma
sun exposure, hands and face, uilcerative red lesion, see keratin pearls, actinic keratosis precursor to CA

keratocanthoma- regresses spntaneously
Basal cell CA
sun-exposer areas, rarely mets, rolled edges with central ulceration,pearly papules
risk of mets, asmmetry, border irrgularity, color changes, diameer > 6 mm
TNF-alpha inhibitors
Etanercept- recombinant form of human TNF receptor binds TNA, used for RA, psoriasis, ankylsoing

Anti-TNF antibodies- inflixmab (Crohn's. RA, ankylosing), adalimumab (ankylsoing, RA, psoriasis)
Drugs used for gout
Acute- colchicine (stabilizes tubulin, inhibits polymeization, impairs leukocyte chemotaxis), naproxen (NSAID)

Probebacid- inhibits renal absortion

Allopurinal and febuxostat- inhibit xanthine oxidase conversion of xanthine to uric acid
used form osteoperosis, Paget's, osteogeniesis imperfecta

inhbit osteoclastic activty

Molluscum contagiosum
poxvirus, umbilicated lesions with viral particles, central depression filled with keratin, STD, remits spontaneously in healthy patients
Robeola vs.... Rubella
Robeola- RNA paramyxovirus measles, prodrome of fever, cough runny nose, conjuntivitis, Kolik spts followed by maculopapular rash

Rubella- maculopapular rash lasts a fe3 dats do not become confluent
Erythema infectiosum (5th disease)
parvovirus B19, rash begins on cheeks, extends to trunk and proximal extremities, poylarthritis in adults

vs. 6th disease, high fever followed by rasj
Complication of staph aureus skin infection
toxic shock syndrome d/t superantigen that stimulates cytokine release, fever, hypotension, desquamting sunbrun like rash
Causative organisms of tinea captisi
trichophyton tonsurans- inner hair shaft, - Wood;s lamp

Microsorum- expsure to dogs, infect outer hair shaft, psotive Wood's lamp
Tinea versicolor
causedby malasezzia furufr, spagetto amd ,metatballs, short hyphae with long yeasts on KOH
Cutaneous larva migrans
dog and cat hookworm ancylcostoma, larvae assed in the feces, enetrate the skin in people causing sperpingeous tunesls in skin with pruriris tx is ivermectin
Fine net-like white lesion in oral mucosa, , pruritic scalyt violaceous, flat topped papules, reticular pattern
Lichen Planus tx is roids, antihistamines
koberneziaiton, well demargated flat elevated salmon collored plaques

upregulation of keratinocytes

treatment is steroids

elongation rete pegs, hyperkeratosis
pitrysias roseas
single large oval scaly rose colored plaque (herald pathch), later a papular eruption on trunk, remits spontanoeusly, antihistamines for pruritis
Causes of massive hair loss
post partum most common, OCPs, stress, radiation and chemo
Nail disorders
nail pitting in posriasis

iron defict- koilonconia (spooning)

Infective endocardiatis- splineter hemorrhgaes

Mess's lines- arsenic oisonin and systemic illess, tranverse white lines on nale

Beau's lines- transverse grooves, infections, nutrition probs, hypothyroidism