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35 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
define the three epithelial membranes
mucous: moist membrane that lines all body cavities that open to the exterior cutaneous: outer skin
serous: lines body cavities that are closed to the exterior
why do layers of serous membrane occur in pairs?
membrane protects organs; serous fluid between layers allows organs to slide freely
serous membrane lining abdominal cavity
serous membrane surrounding the lungs
serous membrane surrounding heart
synovial membrane
soft areolar connective tissue lacking epithelial cells
where is epithelial tissue found?
body coverings, lining, and glandular tissue
what are the functions of epithelial membranes?
protection, filtration, absorption, secretion
how does the skin protect deeper tissues from ultraviolet radiation?
melanin produced by melanocytes
how does the skin synthesize vitamin D?
modified cholesterol molecules in skin are converted to vitamin D by sunlight
how does the skin protect deeper tissues from mechanical and chemical damage?
has relatively impermeable keratinized cells; contains pain receptors, which alert the nervous system to possible damage
Uppermost layer of external skin covering is full of ______ and hardened to prevent water loss.
stratified squamous epithelial tissue capable of keratinizing
dense connective tissue firmly connected to epidermis
What are four functions of subcutaneous tissue?
anchors skin to underlining organs
serves as shock absorber
insulates deeper tissues from extreme temperature changes outside the body
stores nutrients
What are the five strata of the epidermis?
stratum basale, stratum spinosum, stratum granulosum, stratum lucidum, stratum corneum
What strata contains the only epidermal cells that receive nourishment from the dermis?
stratum basale
Constantly dividing daughter cells from the stratum _____ push upward through the stratum ____ and the stratum _____, finally dying and forming the stratum _____.
basale, spinosum, granulosum, lucidum
strata that accounts for 3/4 of epidermal thickness
stratum corneum
shingle-like dead cell remnants
cornified cells
cells that produce melanin
strong, stretchy envelope that holds the body together
What are the two dermal regions?
papillary and reticular
cells found throughout the dermis that prevent bacteria from penetrating to deeper organs
_____ fibers make dermis tough, while ____ fibers give skin its elasticity.
collagen, elastic
How do the abundant blood vessels in the dermis help maintain body temperature homeostasis?
when body temp is too high, capillaries become engorged with heated blood, allowing heat to radiate from the surface

when body heat needs to be conserved, blood bypasses the dermis capillaries, allowing internal temp to stay high
What is cyanosis?
poorly oxygenated hemoglobin turns blood and skin blue
What three pigments contribute to skin color?
1) the amount and kind of melanin, 2) the amount of carotene in the stratum corneum and subcutaneous tissue, 3) the amount of oxygen bound to hemoglobin in the dermal blood vessels
_____ glands are oil glands that dump _____ onto hair follicles or skin surface.
Sebaceous, sebum
Why is sebum important to the integument?
it keeps skin soft and moist, keeps hair soft, and kills bacteria
____ sweat glands are controlled by _____, and are largely confined to the axillary and genital areas.
apocrine, androgens
Sweat is (acidic/basic) to inhibit bacterial growth.
muscles that connect each hair follicle to the dermis
arrector pili
white crescent on nail
inflammation of hair follicles and sebaceous glands
boils and carbuncles