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92 Cards in this Set

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What are the layers of the epidermins?
1- Basal
2- Spinous
3- granular
4- cornified
What are 3 wpidermal appendages?
1- sebaceous
2- apocrine
3- eccrine sweat glands
Macule?
flat, usually colored lesion
papule?
Dome shaped, solid lesion <5mm
nodule?
Dome shaped, solid lesion >5mm
Plaque?
Elevated, flat lesion
Vesicle?
Fluid filled lesion <5mm
Bulla?
Fluid filled lesion >5mm
Pustule?
Pus filled vesicle or bulla
Scale?
Dry platelike excrescence
Lichenification?
Thickened, rough skin with prominent markings
Excoriation?
Traumatic lesion with breakage of the epidermis
Hyperkeratosis?
Hyperplasia of the statum corneum.
Parakeratosis?
retention of the nuclei in the stratum corneum.
Acanthosis?
Epidermal hyperplasia
Pappillomatosis?
Hyperplasia of the papillary dermis with elongation of dermal papillae
Acanthosis?
hyperplasia of the epidermis
Papillomatosis?
hyperplasia of the papillary dermis causing elongation of dermal papillae.
Spongiosis?
intercellular edema of the epidermis
Vitiligo?
partial or complete loss of pigment-producing melanocytes
What causes vitiligo?
an autoimmmune disease--destroys melanocytes.
who do you think of when you hear vitiligo?
michael jackson
Describe a freckle.
the most common pigmented lesion of childhood in light skinned white people. Follows sunexposure.
T or F: freckles are simply increased amounts melanin taken up in the basal keratinocytes.
TRUE
Are freckles benign?
yes
What is solar lentigo?
even colored tan/brown macules occurring on sun exposed areas
What is a common name for solar lentigo?
age spots
What exactly causes solar lentigo?
It is a benign proliferation of basal melanocytes in a linear fashion. (an actual increase in the # of melanocytes--unlike freckles)
What is a nevocellular nevus?
Tan/brown uniform pigmented, small, macule/papule lesion with well defined borders.
Nevi are composed of aggregates of _______.
benign melanocytes
Withn a nevi, compound nevi cells tend to be larger toward the ______ and are smaller toward and more uniform toward ______ into the dermis.
skin surface, deeper
What is one way you can differentiate a nevi from a melanoma?
Look at the histology--nevi show maturation
Can a malignant nevi arise from a preexisting nevi?
yes
What is the progression of a nevus?
Junctional--> compound--> intradermal
Junctional nevi tend to be ___ while intradermal tend to be _____/
flat, raised
What are 5 clinical signs of a malignant melanoma?
1- enlargement of preexisting mole
2- pain/ itching of preexisting mole
3- Development of new pigmented lesion during adult life
4- irregularity of borders of a pigmented lesion. (assymetry)
5- ABCD
What is Pagetory's spread of melanocytes?
individual melanocytes up in the epidermis.
Describe the histo appearance of a malignant melanoma.
NOT mature (that is a nevus), -they are big and atypical deep down in the lesion.
Describe radial growth in a malignant melanoma.
Early: initally the neoplastic transformation in the junction--then upwards spread and to the sides.
Describe vertical growth in a malignant melanoma.
PROBLEMATIC at this point--it will metastasize. You see growth down into the dermis.
HOw is the probablity of metastasis predicted in a malignant melanoma.
BY the depth of invasion beneath the granular layer. This determines the STAGE!!
T or F: melanomas metastazize to almost anywhere.
True
What does a dysplasic nevus look like clinically?
atypical mole, larger than a normal nevus, irregular borders and varied pigment.
What is the histo characteristic of a dysplastic nevus?
cyto and architectural atypia. You see bridging of the nest b/t the rete pegs.
In the heritable melanoma syndrome the presence of _____ predicts the develpoment of melanomas 100% of the time.
dysplasic nevi
What is a disctinct feature of the dysplastic nevi?
Shouldering--the junctional components tend to go out beyond the edges of the intradermal component. (darker in the center--light around the edges)
What are 3 benign epithelial tumors?
1- seborrheic keratosis
2- fibroepithelial polyp
3- veruccae (warts)
What lesion looks "stuck on", it is flat, round and a plaque with a uniform color.
Seborrheic keratosis (happens in old people)
Can seborrheic keratosis lead to keratin filled horn cysts?
yes
What is a proliferation of basaloid cells with keratin filled cysts within the epidermal proliferation?
Seborrheic keratosis
What is a soft bag-like tumor attached to the skin by a slender stalk?
Fibroepithelial polyp
The fibroepithelial polyp is found mostly on the ____ of old, old women.
neck
_______ are caused by HPV.
verucae
__________ ________ is the most common type of wart--most commonly on the hand.
vercuae vulgaris
______ _______ is the name for veneral warts.
condyloma accuminatum
In vercuae you will see cytoplasmic _____- aka ______. This is infected cells with clear halos around the nucleas.
vacuolization , koilocytosis
What are 3 types of malignant epidermal tumors.
1- solar keratosis
2- squamous cell carcinoma
3- basal cell carcinoma
What is a pre-malignant lesion with a sand paper consistency on sun exposed skin. Sometimes you will see cutaneous horns.
Solar Keratosis
_______ may progress to squamous cell carcinoma.
solar keratosis
In what malignant disorder is characterized by atypical basal keratinocytes, and parakeratosis?
solar keratosis (dont forget it has TONS of keratin)
If you see nuclei piling up--this is _______.
parakeratosis
What is the most common tumor arising from sun exposure?
squamous cell carcinoma
Describe a squamous cell carcinoma.
sharply demarcated, red-scaling plaques--nodular and may ulcerate.
What percentage of SCC have metasized at the time of resection?
only 5%
in _____ the squamous cells are invading the underlying dermis.
SCC
______ are slow growing tumors that rarely metastasize/
Basal cell carcinoma
T or F; BCC occur due to over sun exposure.
True
____ manifests as pearly papules with prominent , dilated subepidermal blook vessels.
BCC
_____ shows (histo) a proliferation of basaloid cells from the basal layer of epidermis and peripheral pallisading and clefting b/t the cell nests and stroma.
BCC
____ is an advanced lesion that ulcerates and "rolls".
BCC
Can you have central necrosis with BCC?
yes
What are 3 forms of acute inflammatory dermatoses?
1-urticara (hives)
2- acute eczematous dermatitis
3- Erythema multiform
____ is edematous plaques and wheals.
urticara
____ is characteriszed by localized mast cell degranulation and hypersensitivity I? It is very itchy
urticara
_______ is read, papulovescicular, oozing and crusted lesions that progress to scaling plaques.
Acute eczematous dermatitus
Acute eczematous dermatitus is characterized by ____ (histo).
spongiosis--with superficial perivascular lymphocyctic infilatrate and mast cell degranulation.
_____ in an uncommon, self-limited disorder that appears to be a hyperseneitivity response to drugs or infections.
erythema multiform
_____ manifests with targetoid lesions.
Erythema multiform
What are 2 chronic inflammatory dermatoses?
1- psoriasis
2- lichen planus
Psoriasis mostly affects the _____.
elbows and knees
What characteristic color is psoriasis?
pink and WHITISH SILVERY!!
If you peal back the plaquq of psoriasis, what will happen--what is this called.
in will pin-point bleed (Auspitz sign)
Psoriasis is _____ mediated.
T-cell!
____ is itchy, purple and flat-topped papules?
lichen planus
What are 3 bullous/blistering diseases?
1- pemphigus
2- bullous pemphigoid
3- dermatitis herpetiform
____ is a rare autoimmune blistering disorder resulting from loss of normal intercellular attachments within the epidermis and muscosal epithelium.
pemphigous
___ is a hypersensitivty II RXN with IgG Ab.
pemphigus
)______ are tense bullae filled with clear fluid on normal or erythematous skin.
bullous pemphigoid
____ is a type II hypersensitivity rxn with Ab against the hemidesmosomes of the basal cell layer.
bullous pemphigoid
____ is pruritic plaques and vesicles with symmetric distribution over the extensor surfaces etc.....
dernatitis herpetiform
____ have vesicle grouping
dermatitis herptiform
____ is associated with celiac (gluten-free diet)
dermatitis herptiform