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59 Cards in this Set

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In what areas does the spinal canal widen and why?
C4-T2 to accommodate the brachial plexus
L2-L5 to accommodate the pelvis plexus (lumbar intumescence)
When do accessory processes begin? What happens as they progress caudally?
T11
Ge progressively larger caudally to L6.
Which disc spaces are the most narrow?
C2-3
C7-T1
T10-T11 (anticlinal)
What can the accessory processes be mistaken for and why?
Herniated disc material because they overlie the neural foramen.
In which area can you easily mistaken for a grass awn migration and why?
L2-L4 because of diaphragmatic attachments
Which general and specific breeds of dog is most prone to IVDD?
Chondrodystrophic
Dachshund
What are 6 signs of IVDD?
Narrowing of disc space
Increased opacity in the neural foramen
Decreased size of neural foramen
Mineralized disc that appears to be "breaking up" (shell of mineralized material in a disc space)
Lack to mineralized discs within a series of mineralized discs
Narrowing of the space between articular facets
What are 2 primary malignant bone tumors?
Chondrosarcoma and osteosarcoma
Name 3 metastatic soft tissue tumors that can metastasize to the spinal cord.
Prostatic adenocarinoma (usually at L5-sacrum)
Tumors of neural origin
Myeloma
What breeds of dogs most commonly get hemivertebrae?
Bull dogs, Pugs, Boston terriers
What is a hemivertebrae?
A wedged shaped vertebrae that can cause angulation of the vertebral column.
What causes spina bufida?
Failure of fusion of the vertebral body.
What is block vertebrae?
Complete or partial fusion of 2 adjacent vertebrae.
What general breeds of dogs usually get atlanto-axial subluxation?
Small breeds.
What are the 4 possible causes of atlanto-axial subluxation?
Agenesis/hypoplasia of the dens.
Absence of the transverse ligament.
Nonunion of the dens.
Trauma.
Where are transitional vertebrae most commonly found?
Thoracolumbar or lumbosacral regions.
Why are transitional vertebrae important?
They aren't clinical significant, but they can mess up landmarks.
What breeds most commonly get cervical vertebral instability (Wobblers) and what age group?
Great Danes (young)
Dobermans (adults)
What are the 3 causes of cervical vertebral instability?
Coning of the cranial aspect of the vertebral column.
Malalignment of vertebrae (subluxation)
Secondary disc herniation
Cervical vertebral instability is most common in the horse between which vertebrae?
C3 and C4
What are two possible causes of cauda equina syndrome?
Lumbosacral instability
Lumbosacral stenosis
What are 4 other diagnostic tools used to diagnose cauda equina syndrome?
Epidurogram
Venogram (transosseous)
CT
MRI
What is the most common cause of spondylitis?
Infection.
What is the name of the condition that involves bony proliferations that bridge the vertebrae ventrally?
Spondylosis.
Which appears as an active periosteal/bony proliferation: spondylosis or spondylitis?
Spondylitis.
What is the most common cause of discospondylitis?
Bacteria or fungus.
What are the 3 most common primary neoplasias of the vertebrae?
Osteosarcoma
Lymphoma
Chondrosarcoma
What are the 2 most common metastatic neoplasias of the vertebrae?
Adenocarcinoma and hemangiosarcoma.
What are the two views you can use to evaluate the TMJs?
Dorsal-ventral oblique
Right-left oblique
What is the condition that involves excessive CSF within the ventricular system of the brain?
Hydrocephalus.
Where is the first place you will see metabolic bone disease?
Mandible.
Which general breeds most commonly get craniomandibular osteopathy?
Terriers.
An increased periosteal response and increase bone opacity in the jaw is characteristic of what disease?
Craniomandibular osteopathy.
A mass in the pharynx makes you suspect what in a horse? Camelid?
Horse: abscess
Camelid: pharyngeal worms
What bacterial infection can cause osteomyelitis of the jaw?
Actinomyces.
In horses, a chronic infection in the teeth can lead to...
...hypercementosis.
What are 3 locations of lesions that myelography is useful for?
Extradural
Intramedullary
Intradural-extramedullary
Where is cervical vertebral instability usually located in the dog?
C5, C6 and C7.
Hypertrophy of the ligamentum flavum can case what?
Cervical vertebral instability ("Wobblers")
Where is cervical vertebral instability usually located in the horse?
C3/C4
Where can you get DJD of the spine?
At the articular facets.
The articular facets are a type of __________ joint.
diarthrodial
What radiographic finding will you see in a dog with an inner ear infection?
Soft tissue opacity in the tympanic bulla.
What breeds most commonly get hydrocephalus?
Chihuahua, Maltese, Yorkie.
Hyperparathyroidism can be secondary to ________ and ___________.
Nutrition
Renal
"Floating teeth" (demineralization of bone) and loss of the lamina dura are radiographic signs of what?
Hyperparathyroidism.
True or false:
Dental disease in camelids is more common in the maxilla than the mandible.
False.
It's more common in the mandible than the maxilla.
What are radiographic signs of dental disease?
Soft tissue swelling
Bone lysis
Draining tract
Periosteal response
What are the two causes of atlanto-axial subluxation?
Incomplete or lack of development of:
odontoid process of the dens
atlanto-axial ligaments
What does the open mouth view enable you to see?
Tympanic bullae
What does the frog eye view allow you to see?
Frontal sinuses
For dental rads, which 3 views do you want to take?
Lateral
DV
45 degree oblique
What 4 things are you looking for when evaluating dental radiographs?
Soft tissue swelling
Bone lysis
Draining tract
Periosteal response
In myelography, where do you inject the contrast medium?
L4-L5 or L5-L6
What are the three types of lesions that can be evaluated using myelography?
Extradural
Intramedually
Intradural-extramedullary
What are the 5 most common causes of an extradural lesion?
IVDD
Ligamentous hypertrophy
Hematoma
Neoplasia (sarcoma, lymphoma)
Fracture/luxation
What are the 2 most common causes of an intramedullary lesion?
Edema
Neoplasia (glioma, lymphoma)
What are the 2 most common causes of an intradural-extramedullary lesion?
Neoplasia (neurofibroma, meningioma)
Granuloma
What are odontogenic tumors?
Tumors that have a dental origin.