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57 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
the skeletal system __1__ and __2__ the body and provides __3__ and __4__.
transmits __5__ generated by __6__.
stores __7__ and __8__.
1. supports
2. protects
3. movement
4. leverage
5. mechanical forces
6. muscles
7. phosphate
8. calcium
formation of red blood cells
hematopoiesis
__1__ bone development: bones develop from a __2__ tissue model.
__3__ bone formation: bones develop from __4__ templates (example)
1. intramembranous
2. noncartilage connective
3. endochondral
4. cartilage
(long bones)
long bone constructed from thin outer shell of __1__, inner __2__ bone, and central __3__ with __4__.
1. compact bone
2. spongy
3. cavity
4. bone marrow
cells that shape and remodel bone:
__1__ produce bone
__2__ break down bone
1. osteoblasts
2. osteoclasts
when bone resorption takes place more rapidly than bone formation
osteoporosis
3 stages in healing of bone fractures
1. hematoma formation (clotting)
2. callus formation
3. bone remodelling
Calcium homeostasis:
__1__ of all body Ca is in __2__
Ca gives bone __3__
necessary for __4__ and __5__ functions
remaining __6__ is in blood/other tissues
Ca is obtained from __7__
1. 99%
2. bone
3. hardness
4. support
5. protective
6. 1%
7. diet
Calcium homeostasis:
when Ca deficient:
__1__ gland releases __2__ into blood which causes bone to be __3__; can lead to __4__ bones.
when high Ca in blood: __5__ releases __6__ which __7__ uptake of Ca across gut and __8__ its excretion in kidney
1. Parathyroid
2. parathyroid hormone (PTH)
3. broken down
4. weak
5. Thyroid
6. calcitonin
7. inhibits
8. enhances
hematopeiosis:
__1__ formed in bone marrow
2. 5 parts with most important marrow
__1__ have __3__ that binds oxygen
more _1_ -> more _3_ -> more O2
threshold level of _1_ and _3_ needed
1. erythrocytes
2. skull, sternum, clavicles, vertebrae, pelvis
3. hemoglobin
at low oxygen levels, the __1__ releases hormone __2__ which stimulates reproductions of __3__ in bone marrow which leads to increase in O2 levels
1. kidney
2. erythroprotein (EPO)
3. erythrocytes
__1__ bones in the human skeleton
1. 206
Axial skeleton (parts, # of bones)
80 bones
skull, vertebral column, ribs, sternum
skull has __1__ bones
2. Cranial bones (#, list)
3. Facial bones (#, list)
1. 22
2. 8 (r&l parietal, r&l temporal, occipital, frontal, sphenoid, ethmoid)
3. 14 (r&l maxillae, r&l zygomatics, r&l nasals, r&l lacrimals, r&l palatines, r&l inferior conchae, mandible, vomer)
the __1__ doesn't articulate with other bones, is attached to __2__ with ligaments, __3__ muscles and __4__ help pull it up during swallowing
1. hyoid
2. larynx
3. bone
4. tongue
vertebral column: 5 types
1. cervical
2. thoracic
3. lumbar
4. sacral (5 fused vertebrae)
5. coccygeal (4 fused vertebrae)
ribs protect __1__ region including __2__ pairs attached to __1__ vertebrae, __3__ of which are also attached to __4__. last __5__ pairs are floating ribs
1. thoracic
2. 12
3. 10
4. sternum
5. two
the breastbone or __1__ is located in the __2__
1. sternum
2. anterior midline of thorax
appendicular skeleton has __1__ bones (list)
1. 126
2. upper and lower limbs, pectoral girdle, pelvic girdle
pectoral girdle includes the __1__ and __2__
1. scapula (shoulder blades)
2. clavicle (collar bones)
upper limbs include (list)
humerus
ulna
radius
8 carpels (wrist)
5 metacarpels (palm)
14 phalanges (fingers)
pelvic girdle formed by hip bones (__1__) that each unite with __2__ anteriorily and __3__ posteriorily.
consists of 3 bones (_4_) in adults these bones are __5__ and their boundaries __5__
1. os coxae
2. each other
3. sacrum
4. ilium, ischium, pubis
5. fused
6. indistinguishable
lower appendages
femur, tibia, fibula, 7 tarsals, 5 metatarsals, 14 phalanges
__1__ are junctions of two or more bones
1. joints
ligaments are __1__ tissue that are bands that __2__ and __3__ at the joint
1. connective
2. connect bones
3. limit movement
1. immovable joints
2. slightly movable joints
3. freely movable joints
1. sutures of the skull
2. joints between vertebrae
3. enclosed by a joint capsule lined with a membrane that secretes synovial fluid
osteoporosis: __1__ of bone.
mostly seen in __2__ persons.
1. deterioration
2. older
osteoporosis:
aging causes bones to __1__ and __2__ bone is modified from __3__.
__4__ and __5__ are most suscpetible.
new drugs and hormones (__6__) being tested to increase bone __7__
1. change shape
2. compact
3. spongy
4. vertebrae
5. femur
6. parathyroid hormone
7. density
stress fractures more common in __1__.
due to excessive __2__ resulting in __3__ to bone & an inability to keep up with appropriate __4__ of the bone.
occurs from __5__ response to normal strain at __6__ levels where bone __7__ occurs.
most likely to occur with other physical problems like __8__
1. female athletes
2. bone strain
3. microdamage
4. repair
5. depressed
6. molecular and cellular
7. remodeling
8. osteoporosis
vertebrate muscle: 4 important functions for the body
1. produces movement
2. maintains posture
3. stabilizes joints
4. generates heat
3 types of muscle
cardiac, smooth, skeletal
muscles usually attach to bones via __1__.
muscles __2__ and pull on __1__ and then move the bone
1. tendons
2. shorten
skeletal muscle is made up of hundreds of muscle __1__ consisting of threadlike __2__ which are composed of smaller __3__. striations reflect overlapping of muscle __4__.
1. fibers
2. myofibrils
3. myofilaments
4. filaments
__1__ is contractile unit
thin filaments = __2__
thick filaments = __3__
1. sarcomere
2. actin
3. myosin
how muscles contract: __1__ theory
sliding filament theory
motor neurons end at the __1__ (aka __2__) and transfer an __3__ to muscle membrane. __3__ is taken deep into fiber to the __4__.
1. sarcolemma
2. fiber membrane
3. electrical signal
4. sarcomere
2 systems help carry information from cell surface to sarcomere
t-tubules and sarcoplasmic reticulum
t-tubules are arranged __1__ to surface of fiber and extend deep into fiber intertwining around __2__.
formed as invaginations of __3__.
when nerve signal affects _3_ it spreads across surface and down t-tubules to inside of fiber
1. perpendicular
2. myofibrils
3. sarcolemma
second set of tubules is __1__ arranged __2__ to cell surface deep within muscle fiber. have contact with __3__. ends adjacent to __3__ are storage areas (__4__) for __5__. when the electric signal passes down __3__ it causes __4__ to release __5__ which then passes into __6__
1. sarcoplasmic reticulum
2. parallel
3. t-tubules
4. cisternae
5. calcium ions
6. sarcomere
myosin is composed of smaller myosin molecules that have two segments: __1__ and __2__
__1__ parts are attracted to each other so they __3__
1. light
2. heavy
3. line up in a strand
actin composed of three different molecules
actin
troponin
tropomyosin
Ca enters __1__ & is attracted to __2__ causing __2__ to change shape. as a result, __3__ strands are moved off __4__ strands to expose __5__. the __6__ is the junction between __4__ and myosin. formation of __6__ causes __7__ part to flip toward center of __1__ and pull __4__ strands toward center
1. sarcomere
2. troponin
3. tropomyosin
4. actin
5. active sites
6. cross-bridge
7. heavy
__1__ is used to break myosin-actin bonds and reset __2__ part for next __3__. it also pumps the __4__ out of __5__ and into the __6__. it resets the __7__.
1. ATP
2. heavy
3. shortening
4. calcium
5. sarcomere
6. sarcoplasmic reticulum
7. membrane potential
steps in muscle ctxn:
1. __1__ released by __2__ combines with __3__ on the surface of a __4__.
2. __5__ released from the __6__
3. __5__ binds to __7__ in __8__ causing the __7__ to change shape.
4. __7__ pushes __9__ away from __10__ on __8__
5. __11__ binds to __12__
6. __11__ is split, putting the __12__ head in a __13__ state which bind to the exposed __10__ on the __8__.
7. __8__ is pulled toward the center of the __14__
8. __12__ head binds a new __11__, detaches from __8__, and reattaches to new __10__ so __15__ are pulled past one another and muscle continues to __16__
1. acetylcholine
2. motor neuron
3. receptors
4. muscle fiber
5. calcium ions
6. sarcoplasmic reticulum
7. troponin
8. actin filaments
9. tropomyosin
10. active site
11. ATP
12. myosin
13. high-energy
14. sarcomere
15. filaments
16. shorten
energy sources for muscle ctxn:
__1__ provides energy to "cock" the myosin.
__2__ is used for intermediate storage
__3__ is the fuel stored in muscle fibers
1. ATP hydrolysis
2. creatine phosphate
3. glycogen
decrease in angle between two bones
flexion
increase in angle between two bones
extension
move limb toward midline
adduction
move limb away from midline
abduction
movement of bone around its longitudinal axis
rotation
rotate limb so that distal portion makes a circle
circumduction
turn palm down
pronation
turn palm up
supination
toes up
dorsiflexion
toes down
plantar flexion
muscle is attached to bone so that __1__ will move
2. attachment to the bone that doesn't move
3. attachment at bone that does move
__4__ muscle contracts while __5__ muscle relaxes.
__6__ work together.
series of __7__ work together to produce __8__
1. one (both can't move at once)
2. origin
3. insertion
4. agonist
5. antagonist
6. groups of muscles
7. separate stimuli
8. smooth, sustained contraction
slow fibers are __1__, rich in __2__ and __3__, used most for __4__ activities.
fast fibers are __5__ are for __6__.
1. red
2. mitochondria
3. myoglobin
4. endurance
5. white
6. endurance