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119 Cards in this Set

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What organs are in the skeletal system?
bones, joints, ligaments
What are the functions of the skeletal system? (5)
Support, protection, movement, storage, hematopoiesis
The Skeletal system protects the ______ ________.
internal organs
Skeletal system maintains homeostasis of the ______ levels in the body.
Calcium
hematopoiesis
production of blood cells in the "spongy" or canellous bone
Where does hematopoiesis occur?
red marrow within "spongy" / cancellous material within the bones
In which does hematopoiesis occur?
long bones, vertebrae, ribs, pelvis, and sternum
Where is the primary site for bone marrow aspirations?
pelvic bone
"spongy" bone
cancellous material in the bone
Marrow is filled with blood-producing cells called ____ ____.
stem cells
Which 3 types of cells is produced by hematopoiesis?
red blood cells, white blod cells, platelets
What is white blood cells function?
make up art of the immune system to help fight infections
What is red blood cells function?
responsible for carrying oxygen throughout the body
What is platelets function?
clot blood to prevent bleeding
Calcitonin
produced by thyroid gland, moves calcium from blood to storage
When calcium levels are high, ______ moves calcium from the blood into the bone storage.
calcitonin
When calcium levels are low, ______ moves calcium from the bone storage into the blood .
parathyroid hormone
Parathyroid Hormone
produced by the parathyroid glands, moves calcium from storage to the blood
Why do women begin to devlop osteoporosis after menopause?
drop in estrogen levels
______ maintain strong bone and stimulate bone formation in bothe men and women.
testosterone
Low balances of ______ and ______ are associated with osteoporosis.
estrogen and testosterone
______ helps the parathyroid glands keep calcium levels in balance.
estrogen
What are the 4 major types of bone according to shape?
long, short, flat, irregular
humerus is an example of a _____ bone?
long bone
carpals are an example of a _____ bone?
short bone
skull is an example of a _____ bone?
flat bone
vertabrae is an example of a _____ bone?
irregular bone
diaphysis
hollow tube or hard compact bone of the long bone; shaft
shaft
hollow tube or hard compact bone of the long bone; diaphysis
medullary cavity
hollow area inside diaphysis that contains yellow marrow
yellow marrow
stores fat / adipose for extreme starvation
endosteum
lining of the medullary cavity
epiphysis
ends of the bone containing spongy bone (which contains red marrow)
articular cartilage
covers epiphysis, funtion - cushion
periosteum
strong membrane covering bone except at joint surfaces
LIst the following in order from superficial to deep. Compact Bone, Medullary Cavity, Endosteum, Periosteum
Periosteum, Compact Bone, Endosteum, Medullary Cavity
LIst the following in order from deep to superficial. Compact Bone, Medullary Cavity, Endosteum, Periosteum
Medullary Cavity, Endosteum, Compact Bone, Periosteum
Describe Spongy Bone.
network of open spaces in the threads of the bone, found - epiphysis of bones, contain red marrow
Describe Compact Bone
Made up of osteons / calcified matrix, Function- strength, storage
Osetoblasts
forms bone cells or osteocytes
Waves of ______ form new layers of bone.
osteoblasts
Osteoclasts
reabsorbs (breaks down) bone cells or osteocytes
Osteocytes
bone cell, most abundant in bone tissue
Describe the appearance of a osteocyte.
star - shaped cell with a thin ring of cytoplasm
How does osteoblast become osteocytes?
When osteoblasts become trapped in their own secretion they become osteocytes.
lacunae
spaces that an osteocyte occupies
How many osteocytes can a lacunae hold up to?
1
cartilage is made of ______ tissue
connective
Describe cartilage.
firm gel with fibers imbedded which makes it flexible like firm plastic
Cartilage lacks _____ _______, so it recieves nutrients by ______.
blood vessels, diffusion
What heals faster cartilage or bone?
bone
Where can you find cartilage?
ribs, ears, joints, vertebrae, sutures in the skull, bronchial tubes, epiglottis
What are the 3 form of cartilage?
hyaline, elastic, fibrocartilage
What are characteristics of hyaline cartilage?
hard, translucent, absobs sound waves
Where can you find hyaline cartilage?
end of the bone (articular surface of joints), ear, larynx, ribs and sternum
What are characteristics of elastic cartilage?
large amounts of elastic fibers (elastin) , stiff yet elastic, shock absorber
Where can you find elastic cartilage?
pinna of the ear, auditory canals, epiglottis
What are characteristics of fibrocartilage?
white, tough material, strong for support, more collagen than hyaline,
Where can you find fibrocartilage?
interveterbral discs, symphysis pubis, attachment of some tandons and ligaments
osteon
calcified matrix arranged in concentric lamella with osteocytes, lacunae, and canaliculi; Haversian System
Early bone development consists of ________ and _______ structures.
cartilage and fibrous
Endochrondral Ossification
process of formation of bone in place of cartilage,
When does ossification take place in the womb?
8th week
epiphyseal plate
cartilage in bone which will become bone as growth and development continues
What method can be done to view the potential growth of a person?
x-ray
Girls generally stop growing between ___ and __.
14 and 18
Boys generally stop growing between ___ and __.
16 and 21
Bones are completely set by ___.
25
When does cartilage stop growing?
till the day we die
Bones in the axial skeleton
skull, spine, thorax
Bones in the appendicular skeleton?
upper extremities and lower extremities
BONE: forehead and part of eye socket
frontal
BONE: frontal
forehead and part of eye socket
BONE: bulging topsides of the cranium
parietal
BONE: parietal
bulging topsides of the cranium
BONE: lower sides of cranium, containing inner ear bones
temporal
BONE: temporal
lower sides of cranium, containing inner ear bones
BONE: back of skull with foramen magmun
occipital
BONE: occipital
back of skull with foramen magmun
BONE: central part of floor of cranium
sphenoid
BONE: sphenoid
central part of floor of cranium
BONE: floor of cranium, root of nose, nasal septum
ethmoid
BONE: ethmoid
floor of cranium, root of nose, nasal septum
BONE: form upper part of bridge of the nose
nasal
BONE: nasal
form upper part of bridge of the nose
BONE: upper jaw bones,
maxilla
BONE: maxilla
upper jaw bones,
BONE: cheek bone
zygomatic
BONE: zygomatic
cheek bone
BONE: lower jaw
mandible
BONE: mandible
lower jaw
BONE: small bones form medial wall of orbit and side wall of nasal cavity
lacrimal
BONE: lacrimal
small bones form medial wall of orbit and side wall of nasal cavity
BONE: palatine
back part of roof of the mouth
BONE: back part of roof of the mouth
paltine
Where is the Hyoid bone
small U-shaped bone upper neck, below mandible above larynx
Function of the Hyoid Bone
provide anchor point for the muscles of the tongue and for those in the upper part of the neck
What are 3 abnormal curves found in the vertebrae?
lordosis, kyphosis, scoliosis
Cervical and Lumbar vertebrae are ______ curves.
concave
Thoracic and Sacral are _____ curves.
convex
How many pairs of ribs?
12
How many true ribs?
7 pairs
How many false ribs?
5 pairs
The true ribs attach to the ______ via _______ _______.
sternum via coastal cartilage
The last 2 pairs of floating ribs attach to _____ cartilage.
no
Sternum is _______, consisting of ______, _____, and _______.
breastbone, manubrium, body, xiphoid process
The axial skeleton has ___ bones.
80
The appendicular has ___ bones.
126
BONE: scapula
shoulder blade
BONE: clavicle
collar bone
BONE: radius
lies lateral (on the thumb side) on the forearm
BONE: ulna
lies medial on the forearm
How many bones are in the carpals?
8
How many bones are in the metacarpals?
5
How many bones are in the phalanges?
14
Many small bones in the hand allow for high _____ of the hand.
dexerity
The pelvic girdle ...?
connects the legs to the trunk.
The _____ bone is the hip bone.
coxal
What is the longest bone in the body?
femur