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119 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
organs of skeletal system
bones and ligaments
ligaments
attach bone to bone to reinforce joint
functions of skeletal system
support, protection, body movement, storage, hematopoiesis
what do bones store
minerals such as calcium, and phosphorous
what is hematopoiesis
blood cell formation
what is axial skeleton
skull, hyoid bone, vertebral column,, thorax
whta are the 8 cranial bones
2 parietal, occipital, 2 temporal, sphenoid, ethmoid, frontal
how many facial bones
14 mandible, maxilla
what cavities are formed by skull
cranial, nasal, orbits
only moveable joint of skull
mandible
joints of skull
sutures which are immoveable
corenal
between frontal and parietal
saggital
b/t parietal bones
lambdoidal
b/t occipital and parietal
squmouos
b/t parietal and temporal
fontenals
membranes connecting fetal skull
allows for compression during birth and growth
whaen do fontenals close
age 2
sinuses
cavities that lighten the skull
hyoid bone
only bone in body thhat doesn't articulate with another bone
what does hyoid bone attach to
ligaments and muscles to support tongue
bones of vertebral column
spine also known as backbone and spinal column
what are bones of vertvbrae
7 cervical
12 thoracic
5 lumbar
what is spinal cord
consists of nerve fibers that run through the middle of spinal column
what is thorax
sternum or breast bone
12 pair of ribs
costal cartilage
costal cartilage
attaches ribs
kinds of ribs
true-attach to sternum 1-7
false-attach to superior costal cartilage 8-10
floating unattached on anterior side 11-12
what is appendicular skeleton
pectoral girdle-shoulders
upper and lower limbs
pelvic grdle=hips
upper limbs
humerous, radius, ulna, carpals metacarpals, phalanges
how are carpals arranged
2 rows, 4 in a row
metacarpals
5 in each hand
forms palm
idenified br roman # i-v from lateral to medial
how many phalanges
14
how are phalanges identified
proximal medial distal
pelvic girdle
coxal bones and pubic symphysis
pubic symphysis
articulation of coxal bones
what are 3 fused bones of pelvis
illium, ischium, pubis
difference b/t male and female pelvis
male-less then 90 degree arch
female more then 90 degree arch, wider, lighter
leg bones
tibia, fibula, patella
where is fibula
lateral
what are 7 tarsus bones
calcaneous(heel), talus, narvicular, medial cuniform, intermediate cuniform, lateral cuniform cuboid
bones of foot
metatarsus
5 bones I-V medial to lateralphalanges
bones in toes (as well as fingers)
arthrosis
atticulation of a joint
what are the 3 structural type of joints based on
type of connective tissue holding bones together
3 joint types
1.fibrous
2. cartilagenous
3. synovial
describe fibrous
* bones close together
*held by dense connective tissue
*limited or no movement
describe cartilagenous
pods of cartilege b/t bones
limited movement
ex vertebrae
describe synovial
connective tissue forms articular capsule
ex all joints of limbs
features of synovial joints
ends of articulating bones are seperated by a joint cavity that contains synovial fluid
articular cartilege
articular capsule
accessory ligaments reinforce the joints
articular cartilage cartilage
covers end of bones
articular capsule
outer fibrous capsule
inner synovial membrane
menisci
pads of cartilage that help to stabilize joint
bursae
sacs of synovial fluid that cushion movement of skin over bone
what are synovial joints based on
shapes of the articulating bones
name joints
plantar
plantar
flat or slightly curve
back and forth or side to side
ex- intercarpal joints
hinge
convex surface fits into concave surface
ex- elbow
pivot
rounded surface articulates with a ring formed by another bone
ex proximal radial ulnar
condyloid joint
egg shaped surface fits into oval depression
ex metacarpophalangeal joints
saddle
one bone surface is saddle and other one fits into it
ex- carpometacarpal joint in thumb
ball and socket
round head fits into cup like depression
ex- shoulder
2 kinds of fractures
simple-skin not broken
compound-skin broken
steps to repair a fracture
*hematoma
*fibrocartilage callus formation
*bony callus formation
*remodeling
hematoma
blood clot forms from inflamatory reaction
could last several weeks
fibrocartilage callus
fibroblasts produce collagei
chondroblasts produce cartiage to join ends of bone
phagocytes clean up and remove clot
lasts 3 weeks
bony callus formation
osteoblasts makes spongy bone to replace cartilage
lasts 3-4 months
remodeling
spongy bone converts to compact bone
takes weeks to months
osteoporosis
decrease bone mass
since calcium in body isn't readily absorbed it is take from bones causing decrease in bone mass
deviated septum
deflection(crooked) perpendicular plate of ethmoid bone
palate
roof of mouth
hard palate
anterior portion formed by maxillae
cleft palate
failure of maxillae to fuse during development
scoliosis
spinal curvature-lateral bending
kyphosis
spinal curvature-exagerated thoracic
lordosis
spinal curvature
spina bifida
failure of vertebrae to fuse
meninges protrude
paralysis of various muscles
strain
stretch or tear in muscle or tendon from overstressing or improper lifting
sprain
ligament is stretched or torn
what is RICE theory
rest ice compression elevation
torn cartilage
torn meniscus- repair by arthroscopic surgery
arthroscopic surgery
tiny lens and light inserted in joint capsule and image projected on screen
arthritis
inflamation of joint
bursitis
inflamation of bursa
anaerobic cellular respiration
1 molecule of glucose produces 2 molecules of ATP
consequence of using anaerobic respiration
lactic acid builds up causing 1. muscle fatique and
2. oxegen debt
muscle fatique
inability og muscle to respond to stimulation
oxegen
amt of o2 needed to dispose of lactic acid and replace ATP and CP
contaction of muscle fiber is all or none
true
threshold stimulus
amt of stimulation needed for a contraction og muscle fiber
motor unit
1 neuron and all the muscle fibers it stimulates
recruitment
increase in number of motor units being activated
muscle tone
muscle contraction when the body is at rest, maintains body posture
atrophy
reduction in muscle size due to lack of use
hypertrophy
increase in muscle size
how do muscle cause movement
all muscles cross at at least 1 point
bulk of muscle is proximal to joint crossed
2 attachments, origin and insertion
only pull
during contraction the insertion moves towards the origin
origin
end of muscle attached to bone that doesn't move
insertion
end of muscle attached to the bone that moves
belly
part b/t the origin and insertion
muscles at joints move in________pairs
antagonistic pairs
antagonistic
muscle that acts in opposition to a prime mover
prime mover
muscle that provides most of the movements
synergists
help prime movers by producing the same movement or by reducing undesirable movements
give example of synergist
finger flexor muscle cross both the wrist and finger joints
fixators
special synergists---holds bone still or stabilize the origin of a prime mover
how are skeletal muscles named
direction of fibers
size of muscle
location of muscle
number of origin
shape of muscle
action of muscle
arrangement of fassicles
collections of muscle fibers
circular fascicles
arranged in rings typically found surrounding external body openings that close by contracting
ex- orbicular muscles9surrounding eye)
convergent the fascicles
converge toward a single insertion tendon
triangular shaped
ex--pectoralis major
parallel
lenghth of fasicle runs parallel to the long axis of a muscle
fusiform
results in a spindle shaped muscle with expandable beyyy
ex biceps branch
pennate
short fascicles attach obliquely to a central tendon
ex--extensor digitorum9leg muscle)
facial muscles

frontalis
covers frontal bone and runs under eyebrow
allows you to raise eyebrows
orbicularis oculi
fibers runs in circles around eye
allows you to blink, squint , close eyess
orbicularis oris
circular muscles of lips
helps close mouth, and protrude lips
buccinator
runs horizontally across cheek and inserts into orbiclaris oris
compress cheek to hold the food b/t teeth during chewing
zygomaticus
extends from corner of mouth to cheekbone
raises corner of mouth upward-smile!!!!
chewing muscles

masseter
from zygomatic process of temporal bone to mandible
closes mouth
temporalis
fan shaped muscle overlying temporal bone
helps to close mandible
neck muscles

platysma
single sheet of muscle that covers anterior neck
helps pull corner of mouth down
sternocleidomastoid
a 2 headed muscle, one found on either side of neck
1 from sternum and other from clacicle