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97 Cards in this Set

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Appendicular
Pertaining to limbs or part appended to another part
Arthrology
Science dealing with the study of joints
Articular System
System of the body involving articulations (joints)
Articulation
the connection of bones; a joint
Cartilage
A type of dense connective tissue consisting of cells embedded in a matrix which is firm, compact, and capable of withstanding pressure and tension
Fontanels
Unossified spaces or soft spots lying betweem the cranial bones of the skull of a fetus or infant
Joint
Point of junction between two bones
Ligament
a band of fibrous connective tissue connecting bones, cartilages, and other structures and serving for support or for attachment of facia or muscles
Olecranon Process
An extension at the proximal end of the ulna
Os
Bone
Osteology
Science dealing with the study of bones
Process
A projection or outgrowth of bone or tissue
Bursa
a pad like sac or cavity found in connective tissue usually near a joint which is lined with synovial membrane and filled with synovial fluid which helps to reduce friction between moving parts
Ossicle
Any small bone (especially one of the small bones of the ear
Axial
Pertaining to a line running through the center of a body; also pertaining to head and trunk
Parts of a Long Bone
1. Diaphysis
2. Epiphysis
3. Metaphysis
4. Epiphyseal Plate
5. Articular Cartilage
6. Periosteum
7. Medullary Cavity/ Marrow Cavity
8. Endosteum
Bone hardness is dependent on what?
Crystallized mineral salts
Bone flexibility depends on what?
Collagen fibers
Skeletal System
Bones provide for support, protection, and movement & play a role in calcium balance
Skeletal System - Reproductive System
The pelvis provides support for the uterus during pregnancy.

Bone may provide a source of calcium during lactation
Skeletal System - Urinary System
The kidneys & bones work together to help regulate blood calcium levels
Skeletal System - Respiratory System
Ribs & muscles work together in breathing
Skeletal System - Digestive System
Absorption of dietary calcium provides material for bone matrix
Skeletal System - Lymphatic System
Cells of the immune system originate in the bone marrow
Skeletal System - Cardiovascular System
The blood transports nutrients to the bone cells

Bone plays a role in controlling plasma calcium levels, important to heart function
Skeletal System - Endocrine System
Some hormones act on bone to help regulate blood calcium levels
Skeletal System - Nervous System
Proprioceptors sense the position of body parts

Pain receptors warn of trauma to bone

Bones provide protection for the brain & spinal cord
Skeletal System - Muscular System
Muscles pull on bones to cause movement
Skeletal System - Integumentary System
Vitamin D, activated in the skin, plays a role in calcium availability for bone matrix
4 functions of the Articular System
1. Joints allow for changes of position & body motion
2. Joints help bear the weight of the body
3. Joint capsule, ligaments, tendons, muscles, and articular disks provide stability
4. Synovial fluid lubricates the joints & nourishes cartilage
ligaments
connective tissue bands which hold bones together. Found in connection w/ all freely movable joints & in many less movable joints.
Ligaments function
help reinforce & stabilize the joints & various points
Capsular Ligaments
ligaments that completely encapsulate a joint structure
Articular Cartilage
Smooth layers of cartilage that cover the ends of opposing bones. Found where bones meet adjacent bones. It provides a smooth gliding surface for opposing bones (along w/synovial fluids).
Synovial Fluid
Thick colorless fluid that resembles the white of a raw egg.
Synovial Fluid Purpose
Provides a smooth articulating surface for the adjacent bone. Also acts as a shock absorber. Provides the major source for nutrition for the articular cartilage
Synovial Membrane
A thick, vascular connective tissue that lines the inner surface of the joint capsule. It secretes Synovial Fluid
3 Basic Joint Types
1. Synarthrosis = Fibrous Joint
2. Amphiarthrosis = Cartilagenous Joint 3. Diarthrosis = Synovial Joint
Synarthrosis
Fibrous joints - considered immoveable Characteristics:
a) No Joint Cavity
b) Fibrous cartilage or bone tissue grows between articulating surfaces.
c) e.g. skull sutures, facial bones, & distal tibiofibular joint (ankle)
Amphiarthrosis
Cartilagenous Joints "Slightly Moveable"
Characteristics:
a) held together by cartilage.
b) 2 types Symphesis & Synchondrosis
Symphesis
a growing together of bones at the body midline e.g. symphesis pubis and joints between vertebras
Synchondrosis
joint held together w/ cartilage e.g. joints between ribs & sternum held together by costal cartilage
Diarthrosis
Synovial Joints - Freely movable joints
Characteristics:
a) have a joint cavity enclosed by articular capsule
b) have ligaments that cover & connect the ends of opposing bones
c) have synovial fluid
6 types of Diarthrosis
1. Ball & Socket
2. Hinge Joint
3. Pivot Joint
4. Condyloid Joint
5. Saddle Joint
6. Gliding Joint
Ball & Socket Joint
A ball shaped head fits into a concave Socket. Provides the widest range of motion w/ movement in all planes + Rotation! e.g. the femur asitabular. Humerus & Glenoid is the MOST freely moving joint in the body.
Asitabular Joint
made up of Illium, Ishium & Pubis Symphesis that come together to form the socket.
Hinge Joint
Convex surface that fits into a concavity - has an angular movement in 1 direction (like a door hinge) - has limited motion (flexion & extension in a single plance) -e.g. femoral/tibial joint (knee), elbow joint, finger joints (interphalangeal)
Pivot Joint
a pivot like process that rotates w/ a bony fossa around a longitudinal access. - Motion limited to uniaxial rotation. - e.g. articulation between axis & atlas , joint between radius & ulna where radius rotates to pronate or supinate the hands
Condyloid Joint
AKA Ellipsoidial Joint. - Oval shaped condylke fits into an elliptical cavcity - motion possible in 2 planes @ right angles to each other. -e.g between radius & carpal bones
Saddle Joint
Articular surface of each bone is concave in 1 direction & convex in another - Similar function to condyloid joint - movement is possible in 2 directions - e.g. carpal & the 1st metacarpal (thumb)
Giding Joint
- Articular surface which is flat or slightly concave & the other surface is slightly convex. - permits a gliding movement - non-axial NO ROTATION - e.g Joints between carpals, joints between tarsals
Flexion
bending or decreasing the angle between 2 bones e.g. move chin toward manubrium
Extension
straightening or increasing the angle between 2 bones
Abduction
moving bones towards the midline
Adduction
moving bones towards the midline
Rotation
moving the bone so that its end describes a circle & its sides describe a cone.
Supination
moving the bones of the forearm so that the radius & the ulna are parallel, the palm is moved from a posterior to anterior position
Pronation
Moving the bones at the forearm so that the radius & the ulna are NOT parallel. The palm is moved from an anterior to posterior position
Eversion
Moving the sole of the foot outward @ the ankle joint
Inversion
moving the sole of the foot inward @ the ankle joint.
Functions of Bone & Skeletal Systems
Support, Protection, Assist in Movement, Mineral Homeostasis, Blood Cell Production, Trigyceride storage
What does Red Bone Marrow Produce?
Red Blood Cells, White Blood Cells, & Platelets (hempoiesis)
Where is Red Bone Marrow Found?
Developing bones of fetus. In Adult - pelvis, ribs, breastbone, backbone, skull, ends of arm bones & thighbones
Function of Yellow Bone Marrow
Triglyceride Storage - with increasing age, much of the bone marrow changes from red to yellow.
Describe Long Bones
Have greater length than width & consist of a shaft & variable number of extremities e.g. femur, tibia, fibula, humerus, radius, ulna, phalanges, meta c/tarsals
Describe Short Bones
Somewhat cube shaped because they are nearly equal in length & width. Mostly spongy bone tissue covered by thin layer of compace bone tissue e.g. tarsals, carpals
Describe Flat Bones
Generally thin and composed of 2 nearly parallel plates of compact bone tissue enclosing a layer of spongy bone tissue e.g. frontal bone, parietal, illium, ribs, scapula
Describe Irregular Bones
Have complex shape that cannot be grouped into the other categories. E.g. vertebra, sphenoid, coccyx, mandible, ethmoid
Describe Sesamoid Bones
Shaped like a sesame seed. Small nodular bone embedded in a tendon or joint capsule. "Float in tissue - not attached to other bones.e.g. patella, between metatarsal & phalanges esp on big toe.
Fossa
a hallow or depression
Sinus
cavity or sponge-like space in a bone, which is mucus lined & filled w/ air spaces
Foramen
Hole in the bone e.g. foramen magnum
Meatus
tube shaped opening e.g. auditory meatus
Process
Projections that fit into joints, or act as attachment points for connective tissues
Condyle
rounded projection that enters into the formation of a joint
Head
rounded projection beyond a narrow neckline portion
Trochanter
very large projection
Crest
ridge
Spinous Process
Sharp, slender projection
tuberosity
large rounded projection
tubercle
small rounded projection
2 major areas of skeleton
Axial & Appendicular
# bones in Axial Skeleton
80
Describe Axial Skeleton
Forms upright part or "Axis" of the body
Bones of Axial Skeleton
Hyoid, skull, ribs, sternum, vertebral column, sacrum, coccyx
# Bones in Apendicular Skeleton
126 Bones
Describe Apendicular Skeleton
Anything NOT in the Axial Skeleton
Bones of Apendicular Skeleton
Clavicle, Scapula, Humerus, Coxal, Radius, Ulna (Shoulder Girdle, Pelvic Girdle, Upper & Lower Extremities)
# Bones in Skull & Face
28
Purpose of Skull & Facial Bones
Protect the Brain, Provide Facial Features, Perform Chewing Functions, Makes Speech Possible
Bones of Cranium
Frontal Bone (1 bone), Temporal Bone (2), Parietal Bone (2), Occiputal Bone (1), Sphenoid Bone (1), Ethmoid Bone (1)
# Bones in Face
14
Bones in Face
Nasal (2), Maxillary (2), Zygomatic (2), Mandible (1), Lacrimal (2), Paletine (2), Inferior Concha (2), Vomer (1)
Auditory Bones
6 Ossicles: stapes(2 stirrup), Incus (2 Anvil), malleus (2 mallet)
Location of Hyoid
in the neck between the mandible & the upper part of the larynx
Uniqueness of the Hyoid
only bone in the body which does not articulate w/ another bone
Connections of the Hyoid
Suspended by ligaments on the processes from the temporal bone in the cranium, Tongue is connected as well