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18 Cards in this Set

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What type of Joint structure is the knee? Why?
modified hinge

the femoral condyles on the surface of the tibia have a glide-roll action (which is not common for hinge joints),
What are the possible actions and restrictions of the knee?
restrictions: ligamentous (the only structures supporting the knee are ligaments)

actions: flexion, extension,inwards and outward rotation of tibia in bent position
Collateral and Cruciate Ligaments

What implications do they have to a dancer?
Implications are that the cruciates could receive negative stresses (tensile and torsional) when a dancer overturns his/her foot and then straightens the knee (in slang terms this is called "screwing the knee.")
What do the menisci do for the knee joint?
-increase surface of shock absorption in joint, contribute to stability, act as support or wedge
-move forward/backward during flexion/extension
What are the ACL, PCL, medial collaterals, and menisci all susceptible to?
tensile and shearing

longterm result is instability in the knee joint
What are the dangers of performing a grand plie?
Compressive and cutting forces on the posterior patella Separational forces on anterior and posterior cruciates of knee joint
Torsional forces on medial aspect of knee, contributing to:
shearing forces in medial meniscus
tensile forces on medial collateral ligament
tensile, torsional forces on ACL, PCL.

In short, all the structures of the knee are negatively impacted with deep knee work
What indicators would suggest that a student is prepared to perform deep knee work correctly?
-consistant pelvic alignment
-consistent core engagemnt/core support
-consistent engagement/recruitment of hamstrings. adductors
-ability to maintain all of the above through demi plie and into miny grande
-ability to maintain all of the above into full grande

in class:
-when body is warmed-up
-not in parallel
-not with beginners
What is chondromalacia? What are the causes?
wearing away of cartilage on backside of patella, with or without pain
(used to describe patellofemoral, "runner's knee," after changes in cartilage)

causes:
genu varus/valgus, patella alta, deep knee work, flat patella/shallow femoral groove, faulty technique
What is Osgood Schlatter's Disease? What are the causes?
inflammation, pain, swelling of tibial tuberosity at site of patellar tendon attachment

causes:
overload on patellar tendon (generally during growth spurt)
What is Genu Valgus? What are the causes?
"knock knees," medial condyle of femur taller than lateral

can touch knees, but not ankles, often accompanies wide hips, contributes to pronation

causes:
female tendency to Q angle, habitual pronation, W-sit, genetics
What is the Q Angle?
generally refers to angle of decent of femur and/or resulting joint angle at knee

common in women because of hips
What is Genu Varus? What are the causes?
"bow legs," lateral condyle taller than medial

first, rule out genu recurvatum(make sure knees are facing front)
with ankles together, can't touch medial condyles

causes:
"cowboy" stresses, possible bowing of tibia, genetics
What is Genu Recurvatum? What are the Causes?
"hyperextended knees," extension beyond normal range

check:
in turned out- can't bring heels together (don't mistake for valgus)
in parallel- ask them to touch medial condyles (don't mistake for varus)
if correct pelvis, knee comes out of hyperextension

causes:
lax collaterals
What is Genu Antecurvatum? What are the causes?
appears slightly bent, hypoextended

knee extension that fails to achieve normal range

causes:
tight ligaments
What is Patellar Hypopolasia and Femoral Hypopalasia?
patellar- flat posterier surface, contributes to chondromalacia and dislocation

femoral- shallow femoral groove, contributes to chondromalacia and dislocation
What is a Patella Alta? What are the signs?
abnormally high patella

-look for fat pad (so will have two bumbs instead of one), distance from patella to tibial tuberosity is more than height of patella

contributes to chondromalacia, patellofemoral syndrome
What is Femoral Torsion? What are the Causes?
inward torsion of Femur

"cross-eyed" knees, but when sitting: lower leg hangs from the table feet line up with knee

causes:
often paired with outward tibial torsion, same causes
How do you discover leg length descrepencies?
measure each segment seperately