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53 Cards in this Set

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the design involves a sample of one with repeated measures and design phases
single-subject experimental design
involves two phases: a pretreatment phase or baseline phase followed by an intervention phase
A-B design
involves three phases: baseline phase, treatment phase, followed by second baseline phase
A-B-A design (multiple baseline design)
includes baseline, treatment and additional baseline and treatment phases
A-B-A-B (multiple baseline, multiple treatment)
includes baseline, treatment and additional baseline, introduction of another treatment and another baseline
A-B-A-C-A
multiple baseline, multiple treatment of more than a single variation and an application of both treatments at the same time
A-B-A-C-A-BC-A
includes baseline, treatment and additional baseline, introduction of another treatment, another baseline, application of both treatments combined, another baseline
A-B-A-C-A-BC-A
(3) limitation of single-system design
1. may create ethical dilemmas
2. subject to internal validity threats
3. generalizability may be low
4. theory and practice of statistical analysis of single-system designs is in its infancy
this attempts to determine whether a relationship exists between two or more quantifiable variable and to what degree
correlational research
describes relationships, predicts relationship among variables without active manipulation of the variables
correlational research
limitations of correlational reseach
1. cannot establish cause and effect relationship
2. may fail to consider all variables that enter into a relationship
3. degree of relationship is expressed as correlational coefficient
4. near +1.00 the variable is positively correlated
5. if the correlation is near 0.00 the variables are not related
6. if the correlation is near -1.00 the variables are inversely related
they follow basic experimental steps but fail to include a control group. in other words, a single group is often studied but no comparison between an equivalent non-treatment group is made
pre-experimental design
in this arrangement, subjects are presented with some type of treatment and then the outcome measure is applied. without a comparison group, it is impossible to determine if the outcome scores are any higher than they would have been without the treatment. and without, any pre-test scores, it is impossible to determine if any change within the group itself has taken place
the one-shot case study
X O2
the one-shot case study
the benefit of this design is the inclusion of a pretest to determine baseline scores. we can not at least state whether a change in the outcome or dependent variable has taken place. what we cannot say is if this change would have occurred even without the application of the treatment or independent variable
one group pretest posttest study
O1 X O2
one group pretest posttest study
this design attempts to make up for the lack of control group but falls short in relation to showing if a change has occurred.
the static group comparison study
X O2
O2
the static group comparison study
this attempts to define a cause and effect relationship through group comparisons
experimental design
other name for experimental design
1. true experimental designs
2. randomly controlled trials
requisites of a experimental design
1. a controlled group
2. an experimental group
3. a pre-test
4. a post-test
5. an independent variable
6. a dependent variable
considered to be the gold standard research design for demonstrating a cause-and-effect relationship between an intervention and an outcome
RCT
type of scientific experiment most commonly used in testing the efficacy or effectiveness of healthcare services (such as medicine or nursing) or health technologies (such as pharmaceuticals, medical devices or surgery)
RCT
randomization and the comparison of both a control and an experimental group are utilized in this type of study. each group, chosen and assigned at random is presented with either the treatment or some type of control. posttests are then given to each subject to determine if a difference between the two groups exists.
posttest only control group
R X O2
R O2
postest only control group
this method is the most effective in terms of demonstrating cause and effect but it is also the most difficult to perform.
pre-test-postest equivalent groups study
R O1 X O2
R O1 X O2
pre-test posttest equivalent groups study
new strains that are formed by combining features of more established designs. there are lots of variation that could be constructed from standard design features
hybrid design
this research design is to deal with potential testing threat
the solomon four-group test
this design is one of the strongest of the experimental designs. and, when the circumstances are right for this design, it addresses one of the major problems in experimental designs -- the need to deny the program to some participants through random assignment
switching replications design
experiments in which the researcher does not have full control over the situation
quasi-experimental design
one that looks a bit like an experimental design but lacks the key ingredient - random assignment
quasi-experimental design
consists of administering an outcome measure to two groups or to a program/treatment group and a comparison
nonequivalent group, posttest olnly
X O2
______
O2
nonequivalent group posttest only
most common quasi-experimental design
comparison group pre-test/posttest design
this design is the same as the classic controlled experimental design expect that the subjects cannot be randomly assigned to either the experimental or the control group, or the researcher connot control which group will get the treatment
comparison group pre-test/post-test design
O1 x O2
------------------
O1 O2
comparison group pre-test/post-test design
this design uses several waves of observation before and after the introduction of the independent (treatment) variable
interrupted time series design
this type of design works best if the treatment (independent variable) is expected to have an immediate, marked effect, and if the treatment is introduced (implemented) all at once in all relevant situations
interrupted time series design
O1 O2 O3 O4 x O5 O6 O7 O8
interrupted time series design
the addition of a second time series for a comparison group helps to provide a check on some of the threats to validity of the single interrupted time series design discussed above, especially history
interrupted time series design with comparison group
this design uses several waves of obeservation in both groups (treatment and comparison groups) before and after the introduction of the independent variable X in the treatment group.
interrupted time series design with comparison group
A: O1 O2 O3 O4 x O5 O6 O7 O8
---------------------------------------------
B: O1 O2 O3 O4 x O5 O6
O7 O8
interrupted time series design with comparison group
combines the results of several studies that address a set of related research hypotheses.
meta-analysis
literature review focused on a single question which tries to identify, appraise, select and synthesize all high quality research evidence relevant to the question.
systematic review
generally regarded as the highest level of medical evidence by evidence-based medicine professionals
systematic review
a systematic review is a summary of research that uses explicit methods to perform a thorough literature search and critical appraisal of individual studies to identify the valid and applicable evidence
cochrane database
3 types of blinding
1. single-blind trial
2. double-blind trial
3. triple-blind trial
the researcher knows the details of the treatment but the patient does not. because the patient does not know which treatment is being administered (the new treatment or another treatment) there might be no placebo effect
single-blind trial
one researcher allocates a series of numbers to 'new treatment' or 'old treatment'. the second researcher is told the numbers, but not what they have been allocated to.
double blind trial
most accurate results in bliding
double-blind trial
some randomized controlled trials are considered this, although the meaning of this may vary according the the exact design.
triple-blind trial
to most common meaning is the subject, researcher and person administering the treatment (often a pharmacist) are blinded to what is being given
triple-blind trial