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30 Cards in this Set

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Angular gyrus

(location and associated function)
-in the parietal lobe, that lies near the superior edge of the temporal lobe, and immediately posterior to the supramarginal gyrus

-involved in the processing of auditory and visual input and in the comprehension of language

-Geschwind proposed that written word is translated to internal monologue via the angular gyrus.
Exner’s writing area

(location and associated function)
left frontal convexity (i.e. Broca's and Exner's area)

-writing and reading
Dual Route Model

(basic assumptions)
Mental Lexicon (dictionary) -> Direct route (For familiar words) “Reading by eye” -> Whole word reading “dog”

Spelling to sound conversion -> Phonological Route -> “Reading by ear” Sounding out
Acquired dyslexia/dysgraphia

(basic characteristics and types of errors they make)
Normal reading is affected by stroke, disease, or TBI
Surface dyslexia/dysgraphia
***Associated with left temporal/parietal lobes

-Heavily rely on phonological rules
-They “sound out” everything

(Cat, game, tell)
^^Regular words are intact^^

(Steak, have, island)
^^Irregular words are affected^^

Errors reflect phon. Rules
Broad (“brode”) Steak (“Steek”) Island (“eyesland”)

(Nabe, reag, popple, bool)
^^Nonwords are intact—they use spelling & sound rules to say words

(Grean, stail, rale, rime)

^^Nonword homophones seem fine to them!
Phonological dyslexia/dysgraphia
***Associated with left superior temporal lobe damage
***Wernike’s area (exclusively relying on what the word looks like to know how to say it)

-Rely on recognizing words
-They can’t use phonological rules (cannot sound out words, but can recognize words they know)
-affects unfamiliar words & nonwords
Deep dyslexia/dysgraphia
***Associated with extensive LH lesions (usually from left CVA)

Most severe form of acq. Dyslexia

-Visual errors-visually similar to words
Quarrel -> “squirrel”
Angel -> “angle”
Sword ->”words”
-Semantic errors- related words
Daughter -> ”sister”
Hot -> “cold”
Rose -> “flower”
-Visual + Semantic errors
Sympathy -> “orchestra”
Favor -> “taste”
Charter -> “map”
-Nonword errors
They cannot read nonwords
Teep -> “sweets”

Reading of nonwords is impaired
Class effect (nouns more intact than verbs)
“Concrete” nouns are more intact
(Tulip, green vs. idea, usual

-Errors show same semantic & visual errors (When asked to write)
Developmental dyslexia

(basic characteristics and how developmental is different from acquired)
Difficulties in developing normal reading skills.
Dyseidetic Dyslexia
***Possible angular gyrus dysfunction

-Deficit in analyzing/memory for symbols

Characterized by:
-Letter order confusion
Read/spell “dose” for “does” “on” for “no”

-Heavy reliance on sounding out

Extreme difficulty with irregular words
Ex: “laugh” is read as “log” spelled “laff”
“business” is spelled “bisnis”

-Common irregular words cause the most trouble
“was” “said” “does”
-Similar to surface dyslexia
Dysphonetic Dyslexia
-Difficulty with what & where sounds are in words

Characterized by:

-Dependency on sight vocabulary

-Trouble with phonics (sounding out words)

-Spellings may be bizarre because they don’t follow phon. Rules

-Guessing based on context (not letters)
-He was riding the donkey.
May read “horse”

-Unknown words are hardest
“farm” for “familiar”
“lap” for “lamp”

-Similar to phonological dyslexia
Dysphoneidectic (mixed) Dyslexia
*Difficulty with what & where sounds are in words

Characterized by:
-Dependency on sight vocabulary
-Trouble with phonics (sounding out words)
-Spellings may be bizarre because they don’t follow phon. Rules
-Guessing based on context (not letters)
~"He was riding the donkey."
~May read “horse”
-Unknown words are hardest
~“farm” for “familiar”
~“lap” for “lamp”

-Similar to phonological dyslexia
What language can the RH process?
-RH can only process:
•Familiar, concrete nouns
•Simple syntax


-language processing, in particular at the level of word meaning

-competence on semantic (i.e., conceptual) tasks such as understanding synonyms and categorical (e.g., cat → animal) and functional (e.g., pencil → writing tool) relationships as well as more abstract language and conceptual abilities such as understanding metaphorical relationships.
Aprosodia

(what is it? How is production/comprehension of prosody affected?)
neurological condition characterized by the inability of a person to properly convey prosody in language referring to the ranges of rhythm, pitch, stress, intonation, etc.

-cueing the listener as to whether the utterance is a statement, question, or command and differentiates lexical meaning

-happy, sad, angry
Emotional processing

(production and comprehension deficits from RHD)
-Emotional content in voice (emotional prosody)

-RH damage can cause deficits in:
Expressing or judging emotion in speech

RH is dominant in processing emotion

RHD can result in deficits in
Making emotional expressions
Recognizing emotional expressions
Brain areas associated with production and comprehension of emotion in voice and face
Right parietal temporal area
Perception of emotion in faces/voices

Right parietal area
Expression of emotion in faces/voices
How RHD affects discourse

(spontaneous speech and conversations)
-Discourse appropriateness and organization in production
-Many RHD patients show disrupted spontaneous speech
•Can be excessive, rambling, repetitive, use a lot of words but give little info, have trouble judging relevance
Agnosia

(characteristics of the condition)
The inability to recognize objects despite intact sensory modalities (vision)
Not a sensory deficit, but a recognition deficit

Can occur in any modality, but visual is most common

Recognition in any other modality (touch, hearing) is intact

Two types:
• Apperceptive
• Associative
Ventral visual pathway

(occipital to temporal areas)
Dorsal stream (How? Where?)
Occipital to parietal

Ventral pathway (what?)
Occipital to temporal

*need more info
Apperceptive Agnosia

(what patients can and cannot do)
Due to faulty perception:
•Can’t integrate visual info into a stable representation
•Often have “parts” but not he “whole”

They can’t:
•Recognize objects, words, or faces
•Match by shape
•Copy drawings

They can:
See there’s an object there
Correctly reach for objects
Can tell colors
Identify objects by touch/hearing

Some patients are assumed blind until they avoid objects while walking
Associative Agnosia

(what patients can and cannot do)
They can’t:
•Name items (or their own drawings)
•Match by use or category
•Match drawings to objects
Usually caused by temporal damage along temporal pathway

they can:
-ID objects by touch.hearing
-Copy drawings
-Match by shape
Face recognition in healthy individuals

(RH dominant, upright vs. upside faces, etc.)
Face recognition is right hemisphere dominant

Recognize faces when upright, when sideways we tend to turn our heads
Fusiform face area

(location and associated function)
-Inferior temporal lobe

-associated with face recognition
Acquired prosopagnosia
- caused by brain damage
o Often occurs with agnosia
o VERY rare
Developmental prosopagnosia
- born with it, “poor with faces”
o Highly variable
o More common than previously thought
o “Mr. Magoo” syndrome
• With faces, we do more “whole” than “parts” processing.
• People have trouble processing upside down faces.
• We try to look at faces upright! *by turning head, angling
• Some prosopagnosics do better with upside down faces.
Explicit/Direct tests of memory

-characteristics, how is memory accessed?
-Memory expressed with awareness

Memory is directly tested- we know it’s a memory test

• Recall-learn the material & reproduce it later

-School tests are explicit memory tests.
3 types of recall tests & the recognition test
• Recall-learn the material & reproduce it later
o Serial recall- “Recall in order”
o Free recall- “Recall in any order”
o Cued recall- word(s) is given as a cue.
Part of a study pair:
eye-head
•Recognition test – Which are “old” items?

***Cued recall & recognition can show memory when free recall does not.
o If so, it’s a retrieval problem!
Implicit/Indirect tests of memory

-characteristics, how is memory accessed?
-Memory expressed without awareness

-Indirectly measure memory- We don’t know memory is tested.

-Previous exposure improves responses in another task
-No memory strategies are used.

Improvement -> Memory
Even if we don’t “remember” it.
Different types of implicit/indirect tests
Repetition Effects:
-Items are presented in a task (e.g., reading, ID, etc.)
-Later, the task is repeated with some items repeated.
-As repetition, performance gets better!

Word Completion:
-After study, the person fills in incomplete words.
-Previously seen words are more likely to be solved
Fragment completion of words/pictures.
-After study, one tries to identify items from partial info.

Stem completion:
-Words are presented.
-Later, the person completes word “stems”
-More likely to be completed with “old” words.
Indirect and explicit memory test performance in healthy individuals
Tulving et al. (1982)
-People were tested 1 hour or 1 week later.
-Test was explicit (recog.) or implicit (frag. Completion)

*Implicit performance stays consistant

*Explicit declines over time
Indirect and explicit memory test performance in amnesiacs (plus, other implicit effects in amnesiacs)
Explicit Test:
Amnesiac don’t do as well as controls in Free recall & recognition tests

Implicit Tests:
Controls and amnesiacs showed same results as controls on Word Fragment and Word Stem tests!

Other Implicit Effects:
-Previously heard melodies are rated as more pleasant. *radio, people, brand name items, commercials- after repeated exposure, you tend to like it more!
-Demonstrating implicit memory for environment *when HM had to consciously had to retrieve info, couldn’t