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38 Cards in this Set

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What is shock?
when the cardiovascular system fails to perfuse tissues adequately, resulting in widespread impairment of cellular functions.
Cardiogenic shock results from___. Most cases follow myocardial infarction or surgery requiring cardiopulmonary bypass.
heart failure
Cardiogenic shock is notoriously___. Mortality is ____%.
unresponsive to treatment
50-80
Clinical manifestations of cardiogenic shock include:
impaired mentation, systemic and pulmonary edema, low cardiac output, dusky skin color, low blood pressure, oliguria, ileus, and dyspnea
Oliguria
low urine output
Ileus
failure of gastric motility without obstruction
Dyspnea
difficulty breathing
Mentation
any mental activity including conscious and unconscious process
Hypovolemic shock is caused by:
loss of blood, plasma, or interstitial fluid in large amounts.
Hypovolemic shock begins to develope when volume has decreased by___%.
15
Clinical manifestations of hypovolemic shock:
poor skin turgor, thirst, oliguria, and rapid heart rate.
Burn patients and catheters causing diureses can promote____ shock.
hypovolemic
Neurogenic shock:
massive vasodilation that results from imbalance between parasympathetic and sympathetic stimulation of vascular smooth muscle and extreme, persistant vasodilation.
Extreme, persistant vasodilation:
blood volume has not changed but the space containing blood has increased so SVR(systemic vascular restriction) decreases drastically.
Causes of neurogenic shock are:
trauma to the spinal cord or medulla, depressive drugs, anesthesia, severe emotional stress and pain.
Clinical manifestations of neurogenic shock are:
very low blood pressure, bradycardia, and fainting
Anaphylactic shock is the most___ and the onset is____.
severe
sudden
Anaphylactic shock begins as:
an allergic reaction
Examples of anaphylactic shock causes are:
snakebite venom, pollens, insect venom, shellfish, PCN
Clinical manifestations of anaphylactic shock:
vasodilation, peripheral pooling, relative hypovolemia leading to decreased tissue perfusion and impaired cellular metabolism.
During anaphylactic shock:
smooth muscle constriction occurs in the airway causing respiratory difficulty
During anaphylactic shock progression to:
death can occur in minutes without emergency treatment
The first signs of anaphylactic shock are:
anxiety, difficulty breathing, edema, hives, burning or itching of the skin.
Treatment of anaphylactic shock:
epinephrine administered to cause vasoconstriction and reverse airway constriction, volume expanders given IV (lactated ringers), antihistamines and steroids given to stop the inflammatory reaction
Septic shock begins with an___, progresses to____, then____, then____, then___.
infection
bacteremia
sepsis
septic shock
multiple organ dysfunction syndrome
Septic shock is most often caused by:
gram negative bacteria
Clinical manifestations of septic shock:
low BP, hypoxia, tachycardia, temp. instability, renal dysfunction, jaundice, clotting problems, deterioration of mental status and tachypnea
Hypoxia
inadequate oxygen tension at the cellular level
Tachypnea
abnormally rapid rate of breathing
Treatment of septic shock:
multiple drug antimicrobial therapy, fluid resusitation and vasoactive medications
All unresolved infections can lead to___.
septic shock
First-degree burns:
partial-thickness injury
Example of first-degree burn:
common sunburn when it blisters the next day
Second-degree burns:
superficial partial-thickness injury
deep partial-thickness injury
A clinical manifestation of a superficial partial-thickness injury would be:
when a blister forms immediatley
Clinical manifestations of a deep partial-thickness injury would be:
waxy, white appearence
hair follicles and sweat glands gone but will reappear.
Third-degree burns:
full-thickness injury
A full-thickness injury results in no:
pain because nerves gone