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81 Cards in this Set

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In 1811 or 1822, a series of earthquakes hit _____ Missouri.
New Madrid
The earthquakes in New Madrid were so strong that they 1)____ and 2)_________.
1)rang bells in Boston, and 2) caused the Mississippi River to run backwards
Earthquakes are caused by ______.
shifts in the earth's surface
Volcanoes are formed when ___.
shifts in the earth's surface allow molten rock to escape
The thinnest part of the Earth's layers is the ______.
crust
The crust that forms the continents is approximately ___ km or _____ miles thick.
45 km or 25 miles thick
The crust beneath the ocean is _______ km or _____ miles thick.
5-8 km or 2-4 miles thick
The crust and upper area of the mantle is known as the ____.
lithosphere
The lithosphere is made up of large pieces called _____.
plates
Plates in the lithosphere float on the _____ rock in the earth's mantle.
melted
The idea that the earth's crust is made up of moving plates is called the ___ __ ___ _______.
theory of plate tectonics
Places where the earth's plates meet are called ___ ______.
plate boundaries
All of the earth's plates were once one piece called _____.
Pangaea
The circle of volcanoes that are located in a ring along the continents in the Pacific Ocean are called ___ __ _____.
Ring of Fire
When two surface plates push and scrape against each other, a stored energy is released, resulting in an _________.
earthquake
The released energy of an earthquake causes ________ in the earth's surface.
vibrations
________ are breaks in the earth's surface along which rocks can move.
Faults
Name the three kinds of faults:
1
2
3
1)thrust or reverse fault
2)normal fault
3)strike-slip fault
A _____ fault is when two plates collide, forcing a section of rock to move upward.
reverse
A _____ faults is when a section of rock falls between to separating plates.
normal
_______ faults usually occur at plate boundaries.
normal
The ____ _____ _____ is an example of a separating plate boundary (normal fault).
Great Rift Valley
When molten rock pushes two plates apart in the ocean, new land is formed. This is called ___ ____ _________.
sea-floor spreading
Is sea-floor spreading an example of evolution, or God's special way of creating our ocean floor.
God's way of creating our ocean floor.
A ________ fault occurs when rocks move horizontally against each other.
strike-slip fault
One of the most famous strike-slip faults is the ___ ___ _____ located in California.
San Andreas Fault
What are some other ways usually small earthquakes are formed?
1
2
1)when large amounts of earth are moved around (during construction)
2)when molted rock in a volcano moves
The beginning point of an earthquake is called the _____.
focus
Vibrations caused by earthquakes are called ___ ______.
seismic waves
The point on the surface of the earth directly above the focus is called the _____.
epicenter
___ _____ are seismic waves that occur beneath the surface of the earth.
body waves
Name two types of body waves.
1)
2)
1)P waves (primary) - move fast through solid and liquid
2)S waves (secondary) - move slowly and cannot move through liquid
______ waves travel in a straight path in a push/pull motion.
P waves
______ waves move in an up/down zigzag pattern.
S waves
Can P waves be felt on the opposite side of the earth from the point of the focus?
yes
When the P and S waves make their way to the surface of the earth, they form _____ waves.
L waves
Name two kinds of L waves:
1
2
1) Love waves - fast moving and zigzag
2) Rayleigh waves - move in a rolling motion like ocean waves
A ______ is an instrument used to detect, time and measure the movements of the earth.
seismograph
The seismograph produces _____, which are records of the movements of the earth.
seismograms
Name two scales scientist use to measure the strength of earthquakes: 1 2
1) Mercalli - measures destruction
2) Richter - measures the strength of the waves
What type of buildings tend to be more stable?
Buildings with a steel frame instead of steel rods is more stable.
A giant wave created by an earthquake is called a ___.
tsunami
Name two events that can occur as a result of earthquakes: 1 2
1)tsunami
2)volcanoes
Molten rock is called ____
Magma
______ are scientists who study volcanoes.
Volcanologist
Pockets of molten rock are called ________ _______.
magma chambers
When magma reaches the earth's surface, it is called _____.
lava
An opening in a volcano that allows magma to flow to the surface is callled a ___.
vent
The bowl shape at the top of a main volcano vent is called a ____.
crater
An eruption that flows through a side vent is called a ___ ____.
flank eruption
What determines the explosiveness of a volcano?
1 2
1)the mineral and
2) gas content of the magma
The crushed rock blown out of volcanoes is called ___ ____.
volcanic ash
A funnel-shaped mound of volcanic ash is called a ___.
volcanic cone
_____ of all volcanoes occur around the Ring of Fire.
2/3
Underwater volcanic eruptions are called __ ___.
submarine eruptions
__ ____ are places where a pool of intensely hot magma rises towards the surface of the earth.
Hot spots
Why are volcanoes occur more often on the oceanic plates than the continental plates?
Because the oceanic plates are thinner than the continental plates.
What islands were formed from hot spots on the plates?
Hawaiian Islands
Name the two types of cone volcanoes: 1 2
1)cinder cone
2)composite cone
The ___ volcano is not cone shaped, but has a gradual sloping slides.
shield volcanoes
The ____ cone volcano resembles a hill more than a mountain.
cinder cone volcano
The _______ cone volcano is a large cone shaped volcano.
composite cone volcano
Name the three ways volcanoes are classified:
1 2 3
1)by shape,
2)by how often they erupt, &
3)by the type of eruption
What is the theory of hot spots?
That volcanoes are formed from hot spots that rise to the surface of the earth.
An ___ volcano has erupted at some point in the past and is expected to erupt again.
active volcano
An ___ volcano have not erupted in some time and are not expected to erupt in the future.
dormant volcano
An ___ volcano has not had a recorded eruption and will not erupt again.
extinct volcano
A volcano with a runny lava and not much cinder or ash is called a ___ ___.
Hawaiian eruption
A __ ____ is a flow of red-hot dust and gases.
pyroclastic flow

pyro-clas-tic
A volcano with a violent eruption of lava, ash and cinder is called a __ ___.
Vulcanian eruption
Showers bits of ash and lava are called ____.
cinder
The most violent of volcanoes sends hot ash and debris into the atmosphere is the __ __
Plinian eruption
____ is a mixture of cinders, ash and rock.
tephra
_____ is volcanic fog.
vog
How can volcanic eruptions affect weather conditions?
1)volcanoes cause vog which causes respiratory problems,
2)volcanoes cause acid rain
Volcanoes produce ____ rock.
igneous rock
Name three types of igneous rock: 1 2 3
1)pumice
2)obsidian
3)granite
A __ ____ is formed when a body of water is located near an underground magma pool.
hot springs
A ___ is a hot spring that periodically blows steam and hot water into the air.
geyser
What is an igneous rock?
A rock formed from the lava of a volcano
What are 3 non-volcanic types of eruptions:
1 2 3`
1) hot springs
2) geysers
3) mud springs