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158 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What happened to college enrollment in the years between 1945 and 1970?
It quadrupled.
T or F
In 1968 the country was united in its social fabric.
False.
It was very divided.
Name the 2 student radicals who started the SDS
Tom Hayden
Al Haber
both from U of Michigan
What was the SDS?
Students for a Democratic Society
When was the SDS founded?
1960
What did Tom Hayden draft that became a rally cry for youth revolt?
Port Huron statment
Who said, "We are the people of this generationm, bred in at least moderate comfort, housed in universities, looking uncomfortably to the world we inherit.
Tom Hayden in Port Huron Statement
What was known as Hayden's Manifesto?
Port Huron Statement
What was the "New Left"?
The efforts of Hayden and others to restore participatory democracy to American life
How did the "New Left" differ from the "Old Left"?
Old left espoused an orthodox Marxism.
New Left espoused participatory democracy
Where did one of the earliest campus strikes occur when the university banned sidewalk solicitations for political causes?
University of California @ Berkeley in 1964
Who was the FSM?
Free Speech Movement started at UC Berkley
T or F
Every American war has been a poor man's fight.
True
What helped to fuel the growing student unrest about the direction of the US?
Vietnam!!!!
How many protestors converged in 1967 into Central Park in NY chanting against LBJ?
500,000
What activitiy did the young men engage in during the protests held in Central Park in 1967 against LBJ?
Burned their draft cards
Where did the student unrest climax in Spring 1968?
Columbia University when the SDS began to occupy buildings in protest against the university for proposing to disrupt a neighboring black community to build a new gymnasium
Who were the Yippies?
Youth INternational Party
Who was one of the Yippies' famous leaders?
Abbie Hoffman
Who was provoked and bent on causing anarchy in the streets of Chicago during the Dem. Convention?
Yippies
HOw long did the students clash with Chicago police during the Convention?
3 days
Who really benefitted from the media coverage of the rioting taking place in Chicago during the Dem. Convention in 1968?
The Reepers
Who was the extreme faction of the SDS who believed in arming themselves and committing violence through firebombs?
Weathermen
By what year was the New Left a dead political movement?
1971
Where did students shift their focus to following the Vietnam war?
The environment
List some of the features of the "counterculture" movement:
1. long hair
2. blue jeans
3. mind-altering drugs
4. rock music
5. group living arrangements
What was the name given to those who espoused the counterculture meovement?
Hippies
Who said, "Turn on to the scene, tune in to what's happening, and drop out."
Timothy Leary, a zany Harvard professor
Where were 2 of the most famous urban enclaves for the hippy culture during the late 1960's
Haight-Ashbury district, outside of San Fransisco; and
NYC's East Village
Where was the large rock concert that took place in 1969 and had 500,000 attendees?
Woodstock, New York
What happened to the Hippy Movement?
People got tired of their riches to rags lifestyles and returned to school to become lawyers, doctors, politicians
Who wrote, "The Feminine Mystique"
Betty Freidan, a Smith University grad who raised 3 kids in suburbs of NY
What was the "feminine mystique"?
Used by advertisers and women's magazines, they promoted a false sense of "blissful domesticity"
How did Freidan view the "feminine mystique"?
American middleclass home had become a "comfortable concentration camp, where women saw their individual potential being suffocatefd
What is NOW and who started it?
National Organization for Women, started by Freidan and others
What is Title IX of the Educational Amendments?
Colleges were required to institutue "affirmative action" programs to ensure equal opportunitities for women in areas as admissions, faculty and staff hiring, and athletics
What did the Supreme Court do in 1973's decision, Roe v. Wade?
Struck down laws forbidding abortions during the first 3 months of pregnancy on grounds of right to privacy.
T or F
Congress overwhelmingly approved the Equal Rights Amendment.
True
What was the ERA?
Equal Rights Amendment
What was considered to be the single most outstanding social phenomenon of the 20th century?
Working women outside of the home and their huge numbers
What movement paralleled the feminist movement?
The Sexual Revolution
What single tech advance spurred the Sexual Revolution?
The Development of the birth control pill
What chant did people say who were opposed to the Vietnam War that had to do with sex?
Make Love, Not War
When did the FDA approve the Pill?
1960?
T or F
At first, only married women were permitted to purchase and use the Pill
True
What is now America's most popular birth-control method?
Birth Control Pills
What was the birth rate in 1960?
3.6 children per woman
What was the birth rate in 1970?
2.5 children per woman
What was the birth rate in 1980 and has remained?
sightly below 2 per woman
How many women have taken birth control pills at some point in their lives?
8 out of 10.
How does the Pill work?
Blocks ovulation by releasing synthetic hormones into a woman's body
Where does the term "Chicano" come from?
inclusive lagel for all Mexican immiegrants, Spanish American in New Mexico, old Californios, and Tejanos
What was the awkward dilemma facing Hispanic leaders when they were working for increases in wage and workers' rights/
The steady stream of illegal immigration from Mexico
What was the "bracero program"?
Mexican contract day laborers at harvest time who were trucked into the US - migrant workers
Who formed the United Farm Workers? UFW?
Cesar Chaves, US born who served in Navy for 2 years during WWII
What strike did the UFW join that received much attention?
Grape strike by Filipino farm workers against the corporate grape farmers in Californa
T or F
Initially the Grape Strike brought many gains.
False,
The Grape Strike didn't bring any sizable gains.
What did Chaves embark on in order to break an impasse and diffuse the tension amongst his followers?
He started a fast lasting 3 weeks that ended after he lost 35 pounds and broke bread with Robert Kennedy
Did the Grape Strike eventually succeed for the farm workers?
Yes, 2 years later, in 1970.
By 2000, how Hispanics were living in the US?
35 million, and became the largest minority
LIst the 2 conditions that conmbined to make Indian rights a priority during th 1960's:
1.White Americans felt guilty
2. Native Americans were desperate on many levels
Cite reasons for Native Americans' desperation:
1. Unemployment was 10X national rate
2. Life expectancy was 20 years less than avg
3. suicide rate 100X national avgt
What happened on Alcatraz Island in 1969?
Leaders of AIM occupied the empty prison claiming it by "right of discovery"
What was AIM?
American Indian Movement
What was the BIA?
Bureau of Indian Affairs
T or F
The BIA was a very good agency in protecting Indian rights.
False, probably the worst managed, best example of paternal governance
How did the Native Americans make gains in their plight and conditions?
They went to court armed with copies of old treaties and demanded that these become the basis for restitution
What happened at the Stonewall Inn on June 17, 1969?
Police raided a gay bar in Greenwich Village where rioting broke out and lasted throughout the weekend.
What is "coming out"?
Going public a person's homosexuality
T or F
By the early 1970's there was a push back towards conservatism.
True
What was the name for the people who were allegedly in the middle of extremes in society during the 1970's?
Silent Majority
Name Nixon's speical assistant for national security?
Henry Kissinger
What was the Nixon's plan for peace called?
"Peace with Honor"
Between 1968 and 1973, how many more Americans lost their lives in Vietnam?
20,000
Describe Nixon's 3 seperate fronts to gaining peace in Vietnam:
1. US demanded withdrawl of North from South Vietnam;
2. tried to Vietnamese the South Vietnames army while reducing the American ground forces;
3. putting pressure on NOrth Vietnam by increasing air war
By 1973, how many American troops remained in Vietnam?
50,000
What did Nixon start to do in 1969 without Congress's knowledge in an effort to persuade North Vietnam to give up?
Began bombing Communist sanctuaries in Cambodia
What happened at My Lai?
Story broke in 1969 of a 1968 massacre allegedly ordered by Army Leut. William Calley to murder over 200 Vietnamese civilians.
T or F
Nixon paroled William Calley following his conviction in the murder of civilians at My Lai.
True
How did the American public react to the news of bombing in Cambodia?
Student riots broke out on college campuses.
Where was the site of the most violent student protest against the war in Vietnam and the bombing in Cambodia?
Kent State University in May 1970.
T or F
The majority of the American public sided with the National Guard who shot 4 students saying that they "got what they were asking for."
True
What were the "Pentagon Papers"?
Published in 1971 by the NYTimes, they were leaked by a former Pentagon official, Daniel Ellsberg and confirmed that the public had not received the full story of what really happened at the Gulf of Tonkin back in 1964
What was the truth @ the Gulf of Tonkin that the Pentagon Papers laid out?
Contingenecy plans for American entry into Vietnam were being drawn up even while Johnson was promising the American people that combat troops would never be sent to Vietnam.
T or F
Nixon tried to block publication of the Pentagon Papers.
True,
Supreme Court ruled 6 - 3 for their publication.
Describe Nixon's "jugular diplomacy"
Late in 1972, after pres. elections the Paris peace talks had broken off. Nixon decided to unleash a huge bomb offensive against Hanoi and Haiphong
What were the "Christmans bombings"?
The bombing of Hanoi and Haiphong in late 1972.
When did the US, North and South Vietnam and the Viet Cong sign an agreement ending the war and restoring peace in Vietnam?
January 27, 1973
What was the main goal of the Viet Cong?
Reunification of all of Vietnam
When did the last
American troop leave Vietnam?
March 29, 1973
who was the Pres. of South Vietnam that the US essentially abandoned?
Thieu
When did the North Vietnamese take over all of Vietnam?
1975
How many American troops were killed in Vietnam?
58,000
How much did the Vietnam war cost?
$150,000,000
Describe Nixon's cabinet:
All white
All male
All republican
Who was Nixon's atty general?
John Mitchell
Who were HR Haldeman and John Erlichman
Nixon's advisers on domestic policy whose prior jobs were with the Nixon campaign in advertising
T or F
Nixon vetoed reauthorization of the 1965 Voting Rights Act.
True
Did Congress overide Nixon's veto of the Voting Rights Act's reauthorization?
Yes
T or F
Nixon support desegregation.
False. He tried to block all of its efforts
What was the Bakke decision?
Restricted the use of quotas to achieve racial balance in university classrooms
Name the Nixon appointee to the Supreme Court that continually supported Nixon's strict conservative interpretation of the Constitution?
William Rehnquist
Did Nixon support social programs?
NO WAY
When did 18 year olds get the right to vote in Nation elections as well as state and local elections?
26th Amendment was ratified in 1971
T or F
Nixon supported the Clean Air Act.
False, he vetoed it but Congress overrode it.
What agency did Congress establish to protect the environment?
Environmental Protection Agency
What happened to inflation during the 1970's
rose and stayed in double digits for most of the decade
Why did the US exports sharply decrease during the '70's?
US faced stiff competition from Japan, W. Germany and other emerging industrial powers
Who is OPEC?
Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries
What did OPEC do after the US sent massive aid to Israel during the Yom Kippur War of 1973?
OPEC announced that it would not sell oil to nations supporting Israel and that it raising its prices by 400%.
What happened to the nation's workforce between 1965 and 1980?
It grew 40% 30 million additional workers
What caused the workforce to grow from 1965 to 1980?
1. baby boomers
2. women
What was "stagflation"?
When a recession and inflation occurr during the same time like it did for most of the 70's
What caused the crash of the stock market during Nixon's first term?
Nixon encouraged the Federal REserve Board to reduce the money supply by raising interest rates.
T or F
Nixon was forced to freeze all wages and price guidelines in 1971.
True
Did Nixon's wage and price guidelines freeze work?
NO WAY
When did Nixon visit China and the Soviet Union?
1972
What were the SALT agreements?
Strategic Arms Limitation Talks to set ceiling for intercontinental ballistic missiles
What was the term given to the promise of a more orderly and restrained competition between the US and the Soviet Union?
Detente
What was the term given to Kissinger's frequent trips to the Middle East working towards trying to find a peace in the Middle East between the Arabs and Israelis.
Shuttle diplomacy
Who did the dems nominate for their candidate in the 1972 election?
Senator George McGovern
What happened to George Wallace that forced his withdrawl from running again for pres.?
He was shot and paralyzed below the waist
T or F
Nixon won by a landslide in the electoral college during the 1972 election.
True
520 - 17
What strange occurance in the summer of 1972 set the stage for the downfall of a pres.?
Burglars caught breaking into the Democratic National Committee headquarters in the Watergate Complex in DC
Who was the first to start spilling the beans @ the break in at the Watergate?
Jim McCord, a former CIA agent and security chief for the Committe to Re-Elect the President
What was CREEP?
Committee to Re-Elect the President
Name the judge who early on pursued evidence about the break in at the Watergate
Judge John Sirica
Name Nixon's legal counsel that began to cooperate with prosecutors about Nixon's role.
John Dean
Who pointed to Nixon's involvement in the cover-up to hide the White HOuse's involvement in the Watergate break in?
John Dean
Who told investigators @ the Nixon tape recordings?
a White HOuse aide
Who was the first special prosecutor assigned to investigate the break in at the Watergate?
Archibald Cox
What happened to Cox?
Nixon fired him for going after him for the tapes.
What was Nixon claiming as his reason for not turning over the tapes to investigators?
Executive privelege
Was any cabinet member charged in the Watergate scandal?
Yes,
John Mitchell, then former atty gen. for obstruction of justice
Was Nixon ever named as an "unindicted co-conspirator" in the cover-up of the Watergate break in?
Yes.
T or F
The Supreme Court ruled in a split decision that the Nixon tapes had to be turned over to investigators.
False.
The supremes ruled unanimously
When did Nixon resign?
August 9, 1974
What was the cause for a constitutional crisis after Nixon resigned?
Spiro Agnew had been forced to resign in 1973, Nixon appointed Gerald Ford as vp with Congressional approval under the provision of the 25th Amendment
T or F
Nixon was pardoned 1 month after leaving office by
Gerald Ford
True
T or F
The Watergate scandal revealed that Nixon had goons breaking into his opponents homes, opening their mail and spying on them.
True
What is the War Powers Act?
Passed in 1973, requires presidents to inform Congress within 48 hours if US troops were being deploy7ed in combat abroad and to withdraw troops after 60 days unless Congress specifically approved their stay.
What was the "unconscionable act" committed by Gerald Ford that the NY Times proclaimed?
Pardoning of Richard Nixobn
HOw many bills did Ford veto?
39
T or F
Ford succeeded in plummeting the economy into the ddepest recession since the Great Depression?
True
Who was Jimmy Carter's vp running mate?
Walter Mondale
What state did Jimmy Carter govern?
Georgia
T or F
Carter offered amnesty to the thousands of young men who had fled the coutry rather than go to Vietnam
True
What new departments did Carter create?
Dept. of Energy
Dept. of Education
What did Carter push through Congress that was to be used to clean up chemical waste sites?
A superfund
What was the crowning diplomatic achievement of the Carter administration?
The Camp David Accords
What were the Camp David Accords?
Agreements that came about during 2 weeks of intense negotiations between the leaders of Egypt and Israel
Who was the leader of Israel who met with Carter and leader of Egypt at Camp David during the Carter administration?
Meachem Begin
Who was the leader of Egypt who met with Carter and the leader of Israel at Camp David during the Carter adminitration?
Anwar el-Sadat
What was Carter's crowning failure during his administration?
The economy
During one month in 1980 how high did inflation reach?
18%
What happened to cause the Iraninan hostage crisis?
When the exiled shah, former leader of Iran, came to the US for cancer treatment, a frenzied mob stormed the American embassy and seized 53 hostages in exchange for the shah's return along with his wealth
How long did the Iranian hostage crisis last?
444 days
When did the Iranian hostage crisis end?
After Carter released several billion dollars of Iranian assets to ransom the kidnapped hostages