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233 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Acquaintance rape (date rape)
forced sexual assault by a friend - acquaintance or date
Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)
a catastrophic illness in which a virus invades and destroys the ability of the immune system to fight disease. The AIDS virus appears to be spread primarily through sexual contact - needle sharing among injection drug users - or less commonly - through administration of contaminated blood products.
Afterbirth
the placenta and amniotic sac following their expulsion through the vagina after childbirth
Alexithymia
the inability to put one's feelings or emotions into words
Amenorrhea
the absence of menstruation
Amniocentesis
a procedure in which amniotic fluid is removed from the uterus and tested to determine if certain fetal birth defects exist
Amniotic fluid
the fluid inside the amniotic sac surrounding the fetus during pregnancy
Analingus
oral stimulation of the anus
Anaphrodisiacs
substances that are known to inhibit sexual behavior - such as tranquilizers - opiates - antihypertensives - and nicotine
Androgens
the primary hormone products of the testes - most importantly testosterone - which influences both the development of male physical sexual characteristics and sexual motivation
Androgyny
possessing behavioral characteristics of both sexes; also used to describe gender role flexibility
Aphrodisiac
a substance that allegedly arouses sexual desire and increases the capacity for sexual activity
Areola
the darkened circular area surrounding the nipple of the breast
Artificial insemination
a procedure in which semen from a woman's partner is mechanically introduced by a health care practitioner into the woman's vagina - cervix - or uterus
Atypical sexual behavior
term the authors use to describe sexual behavior that is not typically expressed by the majority of people in American society; clinical term is paraphilia
Autoerotic asphyxia
the enhancement of sexual excitement and orgasm by pressure-induced oxygen deprivation
Bartholin's glands
two small glands located on each side of the vaginal opening that secrete a few drops of fluid during sexual arousal
Basal body-temperature method (BBT)
a method of birth control based on temperature changes before and after ovulation
Bisexuality
attraction to both same-sex and other-sex partners
Bondage
deriving sexual pleasure from being bound - tied up or otherwise restricted
Breasts
secondary sex characteristics - composed of fatty tissue and mammary glands
Bridge maneuver
a technique used to help women experience orgasm during intercourse
Calendar method
a method of birth control based on abstinence from intercourse during the estimated calendar time of her menstrual cycle when she is ovulating and fertile
Candidiasis
an inflammatory infection of the vaginal tissues caused by the yeast-like fungus Candida albicans
Castration
surgical removal of the testes or ovaries.
Celibacy
the state of being unmarried (as historically defined); currently defined as not engaging in sexual behavior
Cervical cap
a plastic or rubber thimble-shaped cup that covers the cervix in order to provide a contraceptive barrier to sperm
Cervix
the small end of the uterus - located at the back of the vagina
Cesarean section
a childbirth procedure in which the infant is removed through an incision in the abdomen and uterus
Chancre
a raised - red painless sore that is symptomatic of the primary phase of syphilis
Chancroid
a disease characterized by smaller bumps in the genital region that eventually rupture and form painful ulcers with a discharge
Child sexual abuse
sexual contact of any kind between an adult and a child (inappropriate touching - oral-genital stimulation - coitus - etc.)
Chlamydia infection
caused by the bacterial microorganism Chlamydia trachomatis - it is among the most prevalent and most damaging of all stds - and is the most common bacterial STD in the U.S.
Circumcision
surgical removal of the foreskin of the penis
Climacteric
physiological changes that occur during the transition period from fertility to infertility in both sexes
Clitoral glans
the head of the clitoris - richly endowed with nerve endings
Clitoral shaft
the length of the clitoris between the glans and the body
Clitoris
a highly sensitive structure of the female external genitals - the only purpose of which is sexual pleasure
Coitus
penile-vaginal intercourse
Colostrum
a thin - yellowish fluid secreted by the breasts during late pregnancy and the first few days following delivery
Coming out
acknowledging - accepting and openly expressing one's homosexuality; there are several steps involved in this process
Condom
a latex or membrane sheath that fits over the penis and is used for protection against unwanted pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases
Constant-dose combination pill
the most commonly used oral contraceptive in the U.S.; contains synthetic estrogen and progestin which are released at constant levels throughout the menstrual cycle
Corona
the rim of the glans of the penis
Cowper's glands
(bulbourethral glands) two pea-sized glands located alongside the base of the urethra in the male that secrete an alkaline fluid during sexual arousal
Cremastic reflex
involuntary contractions of the major scrotal (cremasteric) muscle - causing the scrotum to draw closer to the body
Cryptorchidism
a condition in which the testicles fail to descend from the abdominal cavity to the scrotal sac
Cunnilingus
oral stimulation of the vulva
Depo-Provera
a well-known antiandrogen; an injectable contraceptive that contains progestin and is effective for twelve weeks
Diabetes
an inherited disease that occurs when the pancreas fails to secrete insulin. Nerve damage or circulatory problems resulting from diabetes can cause sexual problems
Diaphragm
a contraceptive device consisting of a latex dome on a flexible spring rim. The diaphragm is inserted into the vagina with contraceptive cream or jelly and covers the cervix.
Dilation and evacuation
a medical procedure for pregnancy termination between 13 and 21 weeks
Douching
rinsing out the vagina with plain water or solutions; usually unnecessary. Excessive douching may result in vaginal irritation.
Dysmenorrhea
pain or discomfort that occurs before or during menstruation
Dyspareunia
pain or discomfort during intercourse
Effacement
flattening and thinning of the cervix that occurs before and during childbirth
Ejaculation
the process whereby semen is expelled through the penis to the outside of the body
Elective abortion
a decision to terminate a pregnancy by medical procedures Endometriosis
Endometrium
the tissue that lines the inside of the uterine walls
Endorphins
neurotransmitters chemically similar to morphine that produce feelings of tranquillity and security
Epididymis
the structure along the back of each testicle in which sperm maturation occurs
Episiotomy
an incision that is sometimes made in the perineum to prevent the ragged tearing of tissues that may occur during the birth process
Erection
coordinated by the autonomic nervous system - the process whereby the three erectile chambers of the penis engorge with blood causing it to increase in size
Estrogens
ovarian hormones - the most important of which is estradiol - which influence the development of female sex characteristics and help regulate the menstrual cycle
Exhibitionism
the act of exposing one's genitals to an unwilling observer
Extramarital relationship
sexual interaction experienced by a married person with someone other than her or his spouse
Fallopian tubes
two four-inch tubes that extend from the uterus in the pelvic cavity where the egg and sperm travel
Fellatio
oral stimulation of the penis and scrotum
Female orgasm disorder (anorgasmia)
a sexual difficulty involving the absence of orgasm in women
Female sexual arousal disorder
a woman's persistent inability to attain or maintain the vaginal lubrication-swelling response
Female sterilization
the leading method of birth control in the U.S. whereby the fallopian tubes are tied off or clipped by any one of the following methods: minilaparotomy; laparoscopy; or culpotomy
Fetishism
obtaining sexual excitement primarily or exclusively from an inanimate object or a particular part of the body
First-stage labor
the initial stage of childbirth in which regular contractions begin and the cervix dilates
Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)
a pituitary hormone secreted by a female during the secretory phase of the menstrual cycle that stimulates the development of ovarian follicles
Foreplay
usually defined as the touching - kissing - or oral-genital contact that precedes coitus
Foreskin
a covering of skin over the penile glans
Frenulum
a highly sensitive - thin strip of skin that connects the glans to the shaft on the underside of the penis
Frigidity
an imprecise and pejorative term traditionally used to describe a variety of female sexual problems
Frotteurism
a fairly common paraphilia in which a person obtains sexual pleasure by pressing or rubbing against another in a crowded public place
Gender
the psychosocial aspects of being masculine or feminine
Gender dysphoria
another term for transsexualism - the condition in which an individual's gender identity is opposite to his or her biological sex
Gender identity
how one psychologically perceives oneself as being either male or female
Gender role (sex role)
a collection of attitudes and behaviors that are considered normal and appropriate in a specific culture for people of a particular sex
Genital warts
viral warts that appear on the genitals and are usually transmitted through vaginal - oral or oral-genital sexual interaction
Gigolos
men who provide sexual services for women in exchange for money and gifts
Glans
the smooth - acorn-shaped head of the penis
Gonads
the reproductive organs (testes in men and ovaries in women)
Gonorrhea
a sexually transmitted disease that initially causes inflammation of mucous membranes
Grafenberg spot
the system of glands and ducts surrounding the urethra which can be located by stimulating the anterior wall of the vagina below the urethra
Gynecology
the medical specialty for female sexual and reproductive anatomy
Herpes
a disease - characterized by blisters on the skin in the regions of the genitals or mouth - that is caused by a virus and is easily transmitted by sexual contact
Homophobia
irrational fears of homosexuality in others or within oneself - or self-loathing because of one's homosexuality
Homosexual
an individual whose primary erotic - psychological - emotional and social interest is in a member of the same sex - even though those interests may not be overtly expressed
Hormone replacement therapy (HRT)
the use of supplemental hormones during and after menopause
Hot flashes
a common symptom associated with menopause whereby the fluctuating levels of hormones rapidly dilate the blood vessels - causing a woman to feel a momentary rush of heat
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
an immune-system-destroying virus that causes AIDS
Hymen
a fold of tissue partially covering the vaginal opening
Hypoactive sexual desire (HSD)
a sexual difficulty involving lack of interest in sexual fantasy and activity
Hypothalamus
a brain structure that plays a major role in controlling the production of sex hormones and the regulation of fertility and menstrual cycles through its interaction with the pituitary gland
Hysterectomy
the surgical removal of the uterus
Impotence
the inappropriate and pejorative term often applied to male erection difficulty; literally means "without power"
In vitro fertilization (IVF)
a procedure in which the eggs are removed from the ovary and are fertilized in a laboratory dish by her partner's sperm - and later introduced into the woman's uterus.
Incest
sexual contact between two people who are related - one of whom is often a child
Intrauterine devices
a small - plastic device that is inserted into the uterus for contraception
Introitus
the opening of the vagina - located between the urinary opening and the anus
Intromission
entry of the penis into the vagina
Kaplan's model of sexual response
three stages of sexual response that include desire - excitement - and orgasm
Kegel exercises
a series of exercises developed by Arnold Kegel that strengthen the muscles underlying the external male or female genitals
Kinsey's continuum of sexual orientation
Alfred Kinsey's seven-point scale analyzing sexual orientation - ranging from 0 (exclusive heterosexual contact) to 6 (exclusive homosexual contact)
Klinefelter's Syndrome
a chromosomal abnormality that results when an atypical ovum is fertilized by a Y-bearing sperm - creating an XXY individual
Labia majora
the outer lips that extend downward from the mons on each side of the vulva; they surround the labia minora and urethral and vaginal openings
Labia minora
the inner lips - located within the labia majora - that consist of hairless folds of skin that join at the clitoral hood
Lamaze
a method of childbirth preparation using breathing and relaxation
Lesbian
a common term for homosexual women
Luteinizing hormone (LH)
the hormone secreted by the pituitary gland that stimulates ovulation in the female
Male erectile disorder
a sexual difficulty whereby a man's penis does not become erect in response to sexual stimulation
Male orgasmic disorder
the inability of a man to ejaculate during sexual activity - usually intercourse
Mammary glands
milk glands in the female breast
Mammography
a highly sensitive x-ray test for the detection of breast cancer Masters and Johnson's sexual response cycle
Masturbation (autoeroticism)
self-stimulation of one's genitals for sexual pleasure
Medical abortions
when medications are used to induce abortions in early pregnancy
Menarche
the initial onset of the first menstrual period
Menopause
cessation of menstruation due to the aging process or surgical removal of the ovaries
Menstrual phase
the phase of the menstrual cycle when menstruation occurs
Menstrual synchrony
the development of congruent menstrual cycle timing that sometimes occurs among women who live in close proximity
Menstruation
the sloughing off of the built-up uterine lining that takes place if conception has not occurred
Monogamy
marriage between one man and one woman
Mons veneris
literally "mound of Venus"; refers to the pads of fatty tissue covering the pubic bone
Mucus method
a birth control method that is based on determining the time of ovulation by means of the cyclical changes of the cervical mucus
Multiphasic pill
an oral contraceptive designed to reduce total hormone dosage and side effects by providing fluctuations of estrogen and progesterone levels throughout the menstrual cycle
Multiple orgasm
more than one orgasm experienced within a short time period
Myotonia
increased muscle tension that occurs throughout the body in response to sexual arousal
Necrophilia
a rare sexual paraphilia in which a person obtains sexual gratification by viewing or having intercourse with a corpse
Nipple
the central pigmented area of the breast - which contains numerous nerve endings. In women - the nipple also contains the milk ducts
Nocturnal emissions
involuntary ejaculation during sleep - also known as a "wet dream"
Nocturnal orgasm
orgasm that occurs during sleep; it is experienced by both men and women
Normative male alexithymia
a relatively common condition among men in which they are unaware of their feelings and/or unable to express them
Norplant
a contraceptive method in which six thin capsules of synthetic progestin are implanted in a woman's upper arm; provides effective contraception for five years
Oophorectomy
the surgical removal of the ovaries
Orchidectomy
the surgical procedure for removing the testes
Orgasmic platform
the increased engorgement of the outer third of the vagina during the plateau phase of the sexual response cycle
Orgasmic reconditioning
a behavior therapy technique in which a client is instructed to switch from paraphilic to healthy fantasies at the moment of masturbatory orgasm
Os
the opening in the cervix that leads to the interior of the uterus
Ovaries
female gonads that produce ova and sex hormones
Ovulation
the release of a mature ovum from the graafian follicle of the ovary
Pap smear
a screening test for cervical cancer
Paraphilia
term used to describe uncommon types of sexual expression in the psychological and psychiatric literature
Pedophilia (child molestation)
nonrelative child sexual abuse
Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)
invasive infections of the upper reproductive tract (uterus - pelvic cavity - etc.)
Penile strain gauge
a device used in sex research that can measure even the slightest changes in penis size as the result of sexual arousal
Penis
a male sexual organ consisting of the internal root and external shaft and glans
Perineum
the area of smooth skin between the vaginal opening and the anus Peyronie's disease
Pheromones
substances secreted by the body - related to reproductive functions - that produce certain odors
Placenta
a disk-shaped organ attached to the uterine wall and connected to the fetus by the umbilical cord. Nutrients - oxygen and waste products pass between mother and fetus through its cell walls
PLISSIT
a model of sex therapy that specifies four levels of treatment: Permission; Limited Information; Specific Suggestions; and Intensive Therapy
Polyandry
marriage between one woman and several men
Polygyny
practice of having two or more wives at the same time
Pornography
visual and written materials of a sexual nature that are used for purposes of sexual arousal
Postpartum period
the first several weeks following childbirth
Premature ejaculation
a sexual difficulty whereby a man ejaculates so rapidly as to impair his own or his partner's pleasure
Premenstrual syndrome
physical and/or psychological symptoms that women may experience before each menstrual period
Prepuce
clitoral hood - or skin that covers the clitoris
Primary erogenous zones
areas of the body containing dense concentrations of nerve endings very responsive to tactile pleasuring; e.g. - Genitals - buttocks - anus - breasts - mouth - armpits - neck - thighs - earlobes - navel - etc.
Primary infection (window period)
the period of time between exposure to HIV and the appearance of HIV antibodies in the blood. Individuals are highly infectious at this time.
Progestin-only pill
an oral contraceptive that contains no estrogen and only 0.35 mg of progestin
Prostaglandin induction
a medical procedure for pregnancy termination during the second trimester
Prostaglandins
hormones produced by body tissues that cause the muscles of the uterus to contract
Prostate gland
a gland located at the base of the bladder whose secretions comprise about 30 percent of the seminal fluid released during ejaculation
Prostate-specific antigen (PSA)
a marker for prostate cancer that can be detected by a blood test
Puberty
the stage of life between childhood and adulthood during which the reproductive organs mature
Pubic lice
parasitic insects that primarily infest the pubic hair and are transmitted by sexual contact
Rape
sexual intercourse that occurs without consent as a result of actual or threatened force
Rape trauma syndrome
the emotional repercussions women experience following rape or attempted rape
Refractory period
in the male resolution phase of Masters and Johnson's sexual response cycle - a recovery stage in which there is a temporary inability to reach orgasm
Retrograde ejaculation
process by which semen is expelled into the bladder instead of out of the penis
Rohypnol
a powerful tranquilizer that - when combined with alcohol - may dramatically reduce inhibitions - produce unconsciousness - and total amnesia for events that occur while a person is under its influence
RU-486
an anti-progesterone substance that has the potential to be used as contraception and emergency contraception - as well as in several other ways
Sadomasochism
the association of sexual expression with pain
Satiation therapy
a technique for reducing arousal to inappropriate stimuli by first masturbating to orgasm while imagining appropriate stimuli and then continuing to masturbate while fantasizing about paraphilic images
Scabies
an ectoparasitic infestation of tiny mites
Scrotum
the pouch of skin of the external male genitals that encases the testicles
Secondary sex characteristics
the physical characteristics other than genitals that indicate sexual maturity - such as body hair - breasts - and deepened voice
Second-stage labor
the middle stage of labor - in which the infant descends through the vaginal canal
Semen
a fluid ejaculated through the penis that contains sperm and fluids from the prostate - seminal vesicles - and Cowper's glands
Seminal vesicles
two - small glands adjacent to the terminals of the vas deferens that secrete an alkaline fluid conducive to sperm motility
Sensate focus
a series of touching and communication exercises developed by Masters and Johnson - used to enhance sexual pleasure and to reduce performance pressure
Seroconversion
the process whereby people develop antibodies to HIV
Sex flush
a pink or red rash that appears in the chest or breasts during sexual arousal
Sexology
the study of sexuality
Sexual aversion disorder
extreme and irrational fear of sexual activity
Sexual harassment
unwanted sexual advances from individuals in the workplace or an academic setting
Sexual masochism
the act of obtaining sexual arousal through receiving physical or psychological pain
Sexual sadism
the act of obtaining sexual arousal through giving physical or psychological pain
Sexually transmitted diseases (stds)
diseases that are transmitted by sexual contact
Shaft
the external - pendulous portion of the penis - excluding the head
Smegma
genital secretions - skin cells - and bacteria which may accumulate under the clitoral hood
Sodomy
an ill-defined legal category for noncoital genital contacts such as oral-genital and anal intercourse
Speculum
an instrument used to hold open the vaginal walls during a gynecological exam
Sperm
male reproductive cell
Spontaneous abortion (miscarriage)
the spontaneous expulsion of the fetus from the uterus in early pregnancy - before it can survive on its own
Squeeze technique
a treatment technique for premature ejaculation - whereby pressure is applied to the frenum and top side of a man's penis until the man loses the urge to ejaculate
Statutory rape
intercourse with a person under the age of legal consent
Stop-start technique
a treatment technique for premature ejaculation - consisting of stimulating the man's penis to the point of impending orgasm and then stopping until the pre-ejaculatory sensations subside
Suction curettage
a medical procedure for abortion that is used in the early stages of pregnancy (7--13 weeks after the last menstrual period)
Syphilis
a sexually transmitted disease caused by a thin corkscrew-like bacterium called Treponema pallidum (also called a "spirochete")
Testes
male gonads inside the scrotum that produce sperm and sex hormones
Third-stage labor
the last stage of childbirth - in which the placenta separates from the uterine wall and comes out of the vagina
Toxemia
a dangerous condition during pregnancy - an early symptom of which is high blood pressure
Toxic shock syndrome
a disease caused by toxins produced by the bacterium staphylococcus aureus that may induce a person to go into shock - occurring most commonly in menstruating women
Transsexual
a person whose gender identity is opposite to his or her biological sex
Transvestism
deriving sexual arousal from wearing clothing of the other sex
Tribadism
rubbing genitals against someone's body or genital area
Trichomoniasis
a form of vaginitis caused by a one-celled protozoan called Trichomonas vaginalis
Urethra
the short tube connecting the bladder to the urinary opening - located between the clitoris and the introitus
Urethra
the tube through which urine passes from the bladder to the outside of the body
Urethral bulb
the portion of the urethra between the urethral sphincters in the male
Urology
the medical specialty that focuses on male reproductive structures
Uterus
a pear-shaped organ inside the female pelvis - within which the fetus develops
Vagina
an expandable canal in the female that opens at the vulva and extends about four inches into the pelvis - consisting of mucous - muscle and fibrous tissue
Vaginal photoplethysmograph
a device used in sex research to measure the increases in vaginal blood volume that occurs as a woman becomes sexually aroused
Vaginal spermicides
chemical substances used in foam - suppositories - the contraceptive sponge - creams and jellies and contraceptive film that are inserted in the vagina prior to intercourse in order to kill sperm
Vaginismus
a sexual difficulty in which a woman experiences involuntary spasmodic contractions of the muscles of the outer third of the vagina
Vaginitis
inflammation of the vaginal walls caused by a variety of vaginal infections
Vas deferens
a sperm-carrying tube that begins at the testicle and ends at the urethra
Vasectomy
male sterilization procedure that involves removing a section from each vas deferens
Vasocongestion
the engorgement of blood vessels in particular body parts in response to sexual arousal
Vasovasostomy
surgical reconstruction of the vas deferens after vasectomy
Vestibule
the area of the vulva inside the labia minora where both the urinary and vaginal openings are located
Viability
the fetus' ability to survive independently of the woman's body
Voyeurism
the act of obtaining sexual gratification by observing people who are undressed or engaged in sexual interaction without their consent
Vulva
all external female genital structures
Zoophilia (bestiality)
a paraphilia in which a person has sexual contact with animals
Zygote
the single cell resulting from the union of sperm and egg cells