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24 Cards in this Set

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what does it represent?

what is meiosis?

what is another term for it?

what are the two cycles?
refers to the male and female duality of biology

gamete production

fertilization

diploid/ haploid cycle
gender-
what is it?

nature? what type of culture?

foundation for what?
individual's identity conception as being male or female

nature-genetics
nurture culture

foundation for sexuality
primary sexual characteristics-
what is directly related to reproduction?

what does it generally serve?
sex diff. directly related to reproduction

generally serving no direct purposes in courtship
key females reprod organs-
5 main organs? describe.
ovary (gonad)
-ova (follicle) prod
hormone(estradiol)secretion
fallopian tubes
-connecting ovaries to uterus (tubal ligation)
uterus
-womb (hysterectomy)
cervix
-connecting the uterus to the vagina
clitoris
-homologous to the penis
key male reproductive organs-
name 6. describe.
testes (gonad)
-sperm prod.
-hormone(testosterone) secretion

ductus(vas)defens
-func. in ejaculation

corpus cavernosum
-penile erection

epididymis
-sperm storage

prostate gland
-secrete sem fluid

seminal vesicle
-secrete seminal fluid
embryonic sexual development-
six wks?

what is absent? where? occurs?

what is present? where? occurs?
wolffian duct
-male internal sexual organs
mullerian duct
-female internal sex organs

testosterone absence-female
-wolffian duct degenerates
-gonads-ovaries

testosterone presence-male
-mullerian duct degenerates
-gonads->testes
external sexual organ development-
three steps?

testosterone absence?

presence?
cloaca
urogenital groove
external genitalia

testosterone absence:
glans
clitoris
vagina

testosterone presence:
glans
penis
scrotum
intersexuality-
two concepts?
ambiguous external sexual organs

congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH)
-excessive prod of testosterone
-during fetal development
-masculination of a femal fetus
sex determination gene-
what gene?

located?

what kind of gene/protein?

where initiated?

what kind of production?
SRY(Sex determining region Y) gene

located on Y chromosome

regulatory gene
regulatory protein

initiated male sexual develop.

testosterone production
abnormal sexual development-
what kind of male? female?

what? where?

what is it called?

what occurs?
XX male-w/SRY gene
XY female

mutation in the SRY gene

complete androgen insensitive syndrome (CAIS)

mutation in the testosterone receptor gene
explaining CAIS-
what gender?

what prod what?

explain the situation.
XY female

SRY prod testes

externally female
internally male
Sex hormones-
what are the three types?

what is a steroid?

name the types of steroids.

what is testosterone?
steroid
estrogen
testosterone

steroid=lipid(fat)

cholesterol
corticosteroids
anabolic steroids
sex steroids

androgen
secondary sexual characteristics-
4 qualities?
not directly involved in reprod.

sexual attractiveness

courtship advantage

greater reprod. success
testosterone?
testosterone:
ch body shape
delays epiphysis closure
promotes body/facial hair
incr muscle mass
sq lower jaw
incr libido
estradoil?
brst development

incr hip to waist ration

decr body hair

fine skin texture

round jaw/lower
XY system-
female?

male?

when discovered?

most what?
XX=female

XY=male

discovered in 1905

most mammals
turner syndrome-
describe.
45, XO

Undeveloped ovaries

Sterile
Klinefelter's syndrome-
describe.
47

XXY

Sterile

Undeveloped testes
ZW sys.-
describe.
Birds
some insects

ZZ male

ZW female
XO system-
describe.
grasshoppers
insects

XX female
XO males
Haplodiploid Sys.-
describe.
bees
ants
wasps

diploid(2n)-female
haploid(n)-male
Temperature Sys.-
describe.
Croc
most reptiles

egg incubation temp
-30 degrees C all female
-32 degrees C all male
-31 degrees C 50% fem./male
Protandry sequential Hermaphrodites-
describe.

example?
begin life as male

dom breeding pair

breeding male-brding female

largest male-brding male

clown fish
Protogyny Sequential Hermaphrodites-
define.

exs?
begin life as females

one dom male

female succeeds the dom male

wrasses