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49 Cards in this Set

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What are characteristics of the Class Amphibia?
Notochord replaced by bone or connecting bone
3 chambered heart (almost functions like 4)
Tetrapods – walk on all fours
Smooth, moist skin (not reptiles)
Water required for reproduction
Nonvascular plants
First on land but didn’t conquer it
Almost same features as amphibians
Reproduction of Amphibia
Amplexus – no internal fertilization
Tadpole larvae
Metamorphisis (thyroid gland) – helps them develop
What is the nickname for organism in the Class Amphibia?
Dual life
What are the Orders of the Class Amphibia
Order Urodela: “Salamander” – distinct tail
Order Anura: “Frogs/Toads” – w/o a tail
Order Apoda:”Caecilians” – w/o feet
What animal do Caecilians resemble?
Snake
Where are most amphibians found?
Near a lot of rainfall
What is a large toad equivalent to?
Mountain chicken
Is pollination the same as fertilization?
No
What are the characteristics of the Class Reptila?
Tough, dry, scaly skin (not moist)
Internal Fertilization
3-chambered heart in most
4-chambered heart in some (except in alligators and crocs)
Well developed lungs
Well developed limbs
Shelled egg (developed later on)
What are the parts of the egg?
Yolk sac
Amion: protects embryo
Chorian: gas exchange
Allantosis: waste/egg exchange
Spiny anteater & Duckbilled Platypus
mammals w/ shelled eggs
How many years apart were humans and Dinosaurs?
65 million years
What is a Notolyst
Fossil species
What is a nickname for Dinosaurs?
Terrible lizards
Covariant evolution
groups that aren’t close start adapting
What are Orders of the Class Reptila?
Order Rhynchocephalia
Order Crocodilia
Order Squamata
Order Testudines
What are characteristics of the Order Rhynchocephalia?
Third eye present: melatonin
Regulates sleep
(shine light at the back of leg, stimulate melatonin level)
What are characteristics of the Order Squamata?
Organisms: Snake and Lizards
What are characteristics of the Order Testudines?
Organism: Turtles
What is the evolutionary link between Reptiles &…
Mammals
Therapsids (Extinct)
Birds
Saurischians (Extinct)
What are characteristics of the Class Aves?
Feathers and Scales
Skeleton w/ air cavities (very light weight!)
Beak (no teeth nowadays)
4 chambered heart
Homeotherms via endothermy
Keeled sternem & flying
Carinate
Flat sternem & flightless
Ratite
What are birds that can fly called?
Keeled carinate
What are birds that cannot fly called?
Flat ratile
What birds have teeth?
Extinct/primitive birds
Archaeopteryx
Primitive bird (had teeth)
Why would lungs of birds be portioned?
For efficient respiration
A lot of chambered lungs
They’re hot so they need a lot of air
Uropigal
Oil gland
Feathers of birds that go into water are covered in oil so they can quickly fly away
Achinga
A bird that fishes
Doesn’t have oil gland so can’t fly until it dries off it’s wings
What are the Subclasses of the Class Aves?
Subclass Archaeornithes
Sunclass Neornithes
What are organisms of the Subclass Archaeornithes nicknamed?
Fossil birds
What are organisms of the Subclass Neornithes nicknamed?
Modern birds
What are characteristics of the Class Mammalia?
Hair
Integument w/ glands
Mammary glands
Sebaceous & Sweat
Dentition specialized
Jaw bones à ear ossicles
Homeotherms via Endothermy
4 chambered heart
Explanation of Homeotherms via Endothermy in Mammals?
Homeothermy: maintain body temperature
Endothermy: maintain temp by (internal) contracting muscles, blood flow, etc.
Ectothermy: maintain temp by (external) going from sun to shade
What are the reproductive types of Mammals?
Egg layers
Marsupials
Placentals
What are the Subclasses of Mammals?
Subclass Prototheria
Subclass Theria
What are characteristics of the Subclass Prototheria?
Monotermes
Echidna
Spiny anteaters
Monotremes
Mammals that lay eggs
Ex. Spiny anteaters & Duckbilled platypus
Have cloaca
What are characteristics of the Subclass Theria?
Monotherians: Marsupials, Opossum, Kangaroos, Koalas
Eutherians: Placentals
How did Primates and Humans Evolutionize?
Prosimians: Lemurs
Anthropods: Monkeys, Apes, & Humans
Hominoids
Apes vs. Humans
Fossil Record:
The Earliest Human: Lucy
Austrolopithicus afarensis
Carnivora
possess sharp, pointed canine teeth and molars for shearing.
Organism: dogs, wolves, bears, cats, weasals, otters, seals, walruses
Cetacea
Marine forms with fish-shaped bodies, paddlelike forelimbs and no hind limbs, thick layer of insulating blubber
Organism: Whales, dolphins, porpoises
Chiroptera
Adapted for flyng, possess a broad skinfold that extends from elongated fingers to body and legs
Organism: bats
Primates
Opposable thumb, forward-facing eyes, well-developed cerebral cortex, omnivorous
Organism: Humans, monkeys, apes, lemurs
Carnivora
possess sharp, pointed canine teeth and molars for shearing.
Organism: dogs, wolves, bears, cats, weasals, otters, seals, walruses
Cetacea
Marine forms with fish-shaped bodies, paddlelike forelimbs and no hind limbs, thick layer of insulating blubber
Organism: Whales, dolphins, porpoises
Chiroptera
Adapted for flyng, possess a broad skinfold that extends from elongated fingers to body and legs
Organism: bats
Primates
Opposable thumb, forward-facing eyes, well-developed cerebral cortex, omnivorous
Organism: Humans, monkeys, apes, lemurs