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46 Cards in this Set

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Erythropoietin
Synthesized in kidney
Increased when RBCs decrease
GM-CSF
Endothelial cells, stromal cells, lymphocytes in marrow
Increased when RBCs decrease
G-CSF
Stromal cells in marrow
Increased during infection
Stem Cell Factor
Stimualtes totipotent and multipotent stem cells to enter differentiation pathway
Interleukins
Mediate communicatin between WBCs
Increased during infection
Neutrophil Function
Chemoattractants cause them to migrate to areas of infection and phagocytosize bacteria
Phagocytosis, killing
Eosionphil Function
Increased in allergic reactions and parasitic infections
Basophil Function
Contain histamine and heparin
Monocyte Function
Become macrophages
Secrete cytokines
Phagocytize opsonized bacteria
Phagocytosis, antigen presentation
Lymphocyte Function
Cytotoxic, immuno
Host defense
Bone Marrow Anatomy
Fat, blood vessels, sinusoids, trabecular bone, hematopoietic islands
Bone Marrow Cells
Hematopoietic, Endothelial, Adipocytes, Osteocytes, Stromal cells (fibroblasts, support, adhesion, growth factors)
Intravascular hemolysis
Mechanical injury, complement fixation, infection by intracellular parasites, exogenous toxins
Hemoglobinemia
Hemoglobinuria
Jaundice
Hemosiderinuria
Decreased serum haptoglobin
Extravascular hemolysis
Foreign, less deformable RBCs
Anemia
Jaundice
Decreased plasma haptoglobin
Splenomegaly
No hemoglobinemia or hemoglobinuria
Diagnostic Tests for Hemolytic Anemias
Decreased haptoglobin
Increased LDH
Increased MCHC
Increased osmotic fragility (HS)
Peripheral blood semar
Hemoglobin electrophoresis
Erythropoietin
Synthesized in kidney
Increased when RBCs decrease
GM-CSF
Endothelial cells, stromal cells, lymphocytes in marrow
Increased when RBCs decrease
G-CSF
Stromal cells in marrow
Increased during infection
Stem Cell Factor
Stimualtes totipotent and multipotent stem cells to enter differentiation pathway
Interleukins
Mediate communicatin between WBCs
Increased during infection
Neutrophil Function
Chemoattractants cause them to migrate to areas of infection and phagocytosize bacteria
Phagocytosis, killing
Eosionphil Function
Increased in allergic reactions and parasitic infections
Basophil Function
Contain histamine and heparin
Monocyte Function
Become macrophages
Secrete cytokines
Phagocytize opsonized bacteria
Phagocytosis, antigen presentation
Lymphocyte Function
Cytotoxic, immuno
Host defense
Bone Marrow Anatomy
Fat, blood vessels, sinusoids, trabecular bone, hematopoietic islands
Bone Marrow Cells
Hematopoietic, Endothelial, Adipocytes, Osteocytes, Stromal cells (fibroblasts, support, adhesion, growth factors)
Intravascular hemolysis
Mechanical injury, complement fixation, infection by intracellular parasites, exogenous toxins
Hemoglobinemia
Hemoglobinuria
Jaundice
Hemosiderinuria
Decreased serum haptoglobin
Extravascular hemolysis
Foreign, less deformable RBCs
Anemia
Jaundice
Decreased plasma haptoglobin
Splenomegaly
No hemoglobinemia or hemoglobinuria
Diagnostic Tests for Hemolytic Anemias
Decreased haptoglobin
Increased LDH
Increased MCHC
Increased osmotic fragility (HS)
Peripheral blood semar
Hemoglobin electrophoresis
Peripheral Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria (PNH)
Stem cell disorder
Prone to complement-mediated lysis
Episodic worse at night
Paroxysmal Cold Hemoglobinuria (PCH)
IgG against P-blood group antigen
Binds complement at low temp
Biphasic antibody (Donath-Landsteiner Ab)
Measles, mumps, viral, flu-like
Alpha Thalassemia
Excess unpaired chains
Severity associated with number of gene deletions
Associated with hydros fetalis, Hb H disease, Alpha thal trait, silent carrier
Beta Thalassemia
Mediterranean, African, SE Asia
Heterozygosity protects against malaria
Iron deficiency anemia is a common misdiagnosis
Do a peripheral smear
Increased WBC, Decreased PLT, Fe and Ferritin increases
Impaired RBC production due to Stem Cell Failure
aplastic anemia
pure red cell anemia
anemia of renal failure
anemia of endocrine disorders
Impaired RBC production due to Defective DNA
Vitamin B12 deficiency
Folate Deficiency
Folic Acid Antagonists
Causes of Aplastic Anemia
Drug exposure
Irradiation
Viral infection
Idiopathic
Fanconi anemia
Pure Red Cell Aplasia Causes
Primary
Secondary, thymoma, large glandular lymphocytic leukemia
Vitamin B12 Deficiency Causes
Gastrectomy
Intestinal malabsorption
Tapeworms
Dietary deficiency
Chronic alcoholism
Hyperthyroidism
Increased requirement in pregnancy
Folate Deficiency Causes
Inadequate diet
Chornic alcoholism
Age
Intestinal malabsorption
Incresaed requiremnts due to pregnancy or infancy
Dialysis
Chemotherapy drugs
Iron Deficiency Anemia Causes
Dietary
Chronic blood loss
Imparied absorption
Increased requirements
Iron Deficiency Anemia Labs
Peripheral blood smear
Hypochromic microcytic
Decreased storage iron
Decreased ferritin
Decreased iron
Increased transferrin
Increased free protoporphyrin
Microangiopathic Hemolysis
RBCs are forced to squeeze through abnormally narrowed small vessels
Microvascular lesions causes mechnanical injury to ciruclating RBCs
Anemia of Chronic Disease
Impaired RBC production
Mimics iron deficiency Anemia
Most commin in hospitalized patients
Anemia of Chronic Disease Labs
Decreased serum iron
Decraesed transferrin
Incresaed stored iron
Decreased erythropoietin
Anemia of Renal Failure
Extracorpuscular defect
Decreased RBC production
Inadequate synthesis of erythropoietin