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42 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Self assembly of subunits is driven foward by
high concentrations of subunit proteins
True or False

Poly proteins are assembled and folded prior to separation by proteases
List two functions of chaperone proteins
Aid in folding and assembly of subunits

increases rate of assembly of hexon trimer
Complete the steps p1 + p2 +p3 = ____ --> ______

5S trimer
14s pentamer
Empty capsid assembly is _____ whereas provirion assembly is ____.
Poliovirus provides an example of _____.
Concerted assembly
(nucleocapsids of (-) RNA viruses and retroviruses also assemble in this way
Where does HSV assemble?
In the nucleus- capsid assembled first, then genome
True or False
building of a capsid is not energy expensive, but packaging requires energy.
In regards to HSV Genome, multiple genomes are attached in a ____.
What is unique about the adenovirus?
Is it sequential or concerted assembly? Why? Cause sometimes you see empty capsids and sometimes you see full ones.
List three ways viruses can exit.
What is a + about budding?

Who buds?
You get membrane!
(Note- matrix induces budding)

In viruses that bud where are viral membrane proteins made?
In viruses that bud, how is the host cell membrane transferred to the cell surface?
By golgo apparatus
What matrix protein is involved in budding?
Write down the budding process of vacinia
Whats weird about vaccinia
It is either released by ell lysis or the mature virion is encased by another membrane before it has fusion with PM. Also it has actin tails. If it does the last thing, the result is 3 membranes becuase the immature membrane already has 2 of em. However the third membrane is lost when virion is released
Whats weird about HSV
GAIN Membrane LOSe memraneE GAIN two membranes, then lose 1
Popular ways to DX viral infections
embryonated eggs
Direct analysis (light mic*but you cant's see viruses with a LM*, electron mic-viral morphology, antigen detection, molecular methods such as PCR and probing)

Direct analysis
E-microscopy can be enanced with ____
immune electron microscopy (IEM)
Three varients of IEM (immune electron microscopy) are
classical IEM
Solid phase IEM (spiem)
immunogold em
Why do indirect immunostaining
Its expensive to conjugate to ab, buying a secondary one is cheaper
ELISA does what
Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay captures antigen or antibody
Molecular methods: detection of ___ is highly specific and can differentiate strains of the same virus species
genome sequences
Classical molecular methods involve what?
Hybridization of DNA/RNA probes for detection of viral genome sequences
+ OF pcr
Easy to set up
fast turnaround time
highly sensitive
- OF pcr
liable to contamination
operator skill required
difficult to set up a qauntitative assay
with latent viruses, dificult to intrepret a + result
Microarray - what is it?
small slides or chips with ordered spots of small pieces of DNA. sample hybridizes with spot- a light up means positive result
data quality and reagent savings
Lab on a chip good where and for what so far?
latin america- in dx of leishmaniasis and dengue fever
Indirect examination includes
1. cell culture
(cyopathic effect, hemabsorption, and haemagglutination inhibition)


Animals(death or disease)
3 things for cell culture for virus isolation
1. primary cell cultures
2. diploid cell lines
3. continuous aka immortal cell lines
Plaque assays are made using ____ and are good for ____.
serial dilutions, observations of cell to cell spread of virus by tell-tale lysis
Transformed focus assay = __-
loss of contact inhibition
(little tumors forming)
Retroviruses produces small piles of cells called ___ instead of plaques.
Syncytia formation in cell culture is caused by ___ and ___.
RSV and mv, also mumps - hemadsorption of erythrocytes
Cytopathic effect means
fusion of cells into much larger cells (multinucleated)
HAI =?
Hemagglutination inhibition -HI positive = no agglut
HI negative = agglut
If antibody that binds an HA virus is present in test serum, then RBC's wukk ___ with HA antigen
not aggultinate
Prior to cell culture, how were viruses used?
True or False

Eggs are still used to manufacture influenza virus vaccine
Why should animal hosts systems sill be used?
-to study viruses that cannot be made in vitro
-to study pathogenesis of viral infections
-to test vaccine safety