Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/37

Click to flip

37 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what is hyponatremia
below 135
what is hypernatremia
above 145
what is hypovolemia
extracellular volume contraction
what is hypervolemia
extracellular volume expansion
what causes hyponatremia
not due to loss of sodium
but excess volume problem
what happens neurologically in hyponatremia
cell swelling due to water movement into cells - neurological problems
what is pseudohyponatremia
can be caused by hyperlipidemia, hyperproteinemia, or hypercholesteromia ; basically large molecules that take up more volume and therefore there is less plasma volume
what are causes of true hyponatremia
dilute urine, low adh
reset osmostat -pregnancy
psychogenic polydipsia
or concentrated urine, high adh
low effective cir volume
siadh- syndrome of inappropriate adh
what causes low adh, dilute urine
reset osmostat -pregnancy
psychogenic polydipsia
what causes concentrated urine, high adh
low effective cir volume
siadh- syndrome of inappropriate adh
what is the equation to estimate the plasma solute concentration
(2*na) + (glucose/18) + (BUN/2.8)
what is the equation for the estimation of the osmolar gap
difference btw the plasma osmolality as estimated by the plasma solute concentration (2*na) + (glucose/18) + (BUN/2.8)and the true plasma osmolality measured with an osmometer normally less than 10
what is the normal osmolar gap
less than 10
what is the osmolar gap in true hyponatremia
less than 10 - it is normal
what is hypernatremia always associated with
hypertonicity
what is hypernatremia
na above 145
what is hypernatremia caused by
water loss and not sodium gain
what does extrarenal water loss cause
hypernatremia
what is extrarenal water loss
excessive sweating
diarrhea
vomiting
what does renal water loss cause
hypernatremia
what is renal water loss caused by
adh mechanism not working dont retain water
either central or nephrogenic diabetes insipidis
what is hypovolemia caused by
volume depletion: specifically loss of salt and water in excess of intake
what are the signs of hypovolemia
orthostatic hypotension
orthostatic tachycardia
loss of skin turgor
dry mucous membranes
what is hypervolemia caused by
excessive gain of salt and water
common example is congestive heart failure
how is congestive heart failure causing a hypervolemic state
the ischemic injury to myocardium causes loss of effective circulating blood volume which initiates autonomic and hormonal responses
cardiac injury causes what changes to aldosterone, adh, and angiotensin 2
it causes a rise in all three
is edema caused by excessive loss of na or water gain
water gain
what is the natremic state of a congestive heart pt
hyponatremia
where is protein usually reabsorbed
in the proximal tubules
what is the normal urinary protein composition
40% albumin
10% IgG
5% immunoglobulin light chains
3% IgA and the remainder is Tamm-horsfall glycoprotein
what is the two methods for detecting protein in the urine
dipstick and sulfosalicylic acid
what does the dipstick react to
albumin
can dipstick detect non-albumin protein ie immunoglobulin
no
sulfosalicylic acid test detects what
all proteins
what happens to urine when salicylic acid is added
it becomes cloudy
more turbid more protein
what are the physiological causes of proteinuria
orthostasis
strenuous physical activity
what are the 4 pathological causes of proteinuria
loss of charge barrier
loss of size barrier
failure of proximal tubule to reabsorb filtered protein
and protein overload-proteinuria