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15 Cards in this Set

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Normal serum sodium is...
Low serum sodium
implications
common causes
high serum sodium
implications
causes
135 to 145 mEq/L
<135 mEq/L
hyponatremia
syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone.
>145 mEq/L
hypernatremia
Diabetes insipidus
Normal serum potassium is__
low serum potassium
implications
common causes
high serum potassium
implications
common causes
*3.5 to 5 mEq/L
<3.5 mEq/L
hypokalemia
diarrhea
>5mEq/L
hyperkalemia
burns
Normal total serum calcium
Low total serum calcium
Implications
Causes
High total serum calcium
Implications
Causes
8.9 to 10.1mg/dL
<8.9 mg/dL
hypocalcemia
acute pancreatitis
>10.1mg/dL
hypercalcemia
hyperparathyroidism
a
Normal ionized calcium
Low ionized calcium
Implications
Common causes
High ionized calcium
Implications
common causes
4.5 to 5.1 mg/dL
<4.5 mg/dL
hypocalcemia
Massive transfusion
>5.1 mg/dL
hypercalcemia
Acidosis
Normal serum phosphorous
Low serum Phosphorous
Implications
Common Causes
High serum phosphorous
Implications
Common Causes
2.5 to 4.5 mg/dL; or 1/8 to 2.6 mEq/L.
<2.5 mg/dL or 1.8 mEq/L
hypophosphatemia
Diabetic ketoacidosis
>4.5 mg/dL or 2.6 mEq/L
hyperphosphatemia
renal insufficiency
Normal serum magnesium
Low serum magnesium
Implications
Common Causes
High serum magnesium
Implications
Common Causes
1.5 to 2.5 mEq/L
<1.5 mEq/L
hypomagnesemia
Malnutrition
>2.5 mEq/L
hypermagnesemia
renal failure
Normal serum chloride
low serum chloride
Implications
Common causes
High serum chloride
Implications
Common Causes
96 to 106 mEq/L
<96 mEq/L
hypochloremia
prolonged vomiting
>106 mEq/L
hyperchloremia
hypernatremia
Describe the basic functions of sodium (8)
1. Regulates extracellular fluid volume
2. Increases cell membrane permeability
3 Maintains blood volume
4 Controls water distribution between extracellular fluid and intracellular fluid spaces
5. Provides necessary mechanism for normal nerve impulse conduction.
6. helps maintain neuromuscular irritability
7. assists in controlling muscle contractility
8. provides necessary mechanism for buffer system as cation that combines with bicarbonate and phosphate.
Describe the basic functions of Potassium (6)
1. regulates water and electrolyte content of intracellular fluid (ICF)
2. Promotes nerve impulses, especially in heart muscle.
3. Promotes skeletal muscle function
4. Assists in transforming carbohydrates into energy and restructuring amino acids into proteins
5. Provides necesary mechanism for glycogen deposition in liver
6. Assists in regulation of acid-base balance by cellular exchange with hydrogen.
Describe the basic functions of calcium (10)
1. Nonionized form required for building strong bones and teeth.
2. Acts as essential component for blood coagulation
3. decreases neuromuscular irritability
4. Promotes normal nerve impulse transmission
5. Strengthens and thickens cell membrane
6. Assists in absorption and utilization of vit. b12
7. activates enzymes that in turn activate chemical rxs. in the body
8. Inhibits cell membrane permeability to sodium
9. moves into cell with sodium during depolarization, binding tropin
10. results in actin- and myosin- promoting muscle contraction
Basic Functions of Magnesium (9)
1. Affects metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins.
2. activates many enzymes (b12 metabolism, use of potassium, calcium, protein)
3. promotes regulation of calcium, phosphate, potassium
4. Provides essential mechanism for nerve transmission, muscle contraction (needs to be present for actin and myosin to use adenosine triphosphate), heart fx,
5. powers Na/K pump
6. Necessary for energy release in adenosine triphosphate-adenosine diphosphate reaction (ADP)
7. Inhibits smooth-muscle contraction
8. Influences vasodilation t help cardiovascular system functioning
9. Helps sodium/potas. pump
Anions are...(5)
(HCO3-), Cl-, HPO4-, Proteinate, and Organic Acids.
Basic functions of Cl- (4)
1. Regulates extracellular fluid volume
2. Serves as blood buffer-chloride shift.
3. Digestion - required for secretion of hydrochloric acid
4. Necessary for activation of protease, bile, pancreatic juices
Basic functions of Phosphate (HPO4-) (5)
1. Nonionized form promotes bone and teeth rigidity
2. Promotes acid-base balance (buffer system)
3. Provides necessary mechanism for production of adenosine triphosphate for energy transfer.
4. Maintains cell wall integrity
5. RBC ingredient, WBC and platelets.
Basic Functions of Hydrogen (H+)/Bicarbonate (HCO3-) (3)
1. Ratio of the concentration of each determines acidity or alkalinity of body fluids.
2. Acid-base balance promotes efficient enzyme functioning
3. Acid-base balance is necessary for binding of oxygen by hemoglobin.