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47 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
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Noun
Name of a person, place, thing, quality, idea, or action.
Picasso, Mexico, printer, honesty, democracy, stamp collecting
Common Nouns
Refer to general persons, places, things, concepts, or qualities.
city, generosity
Proper Nouns
Name particular persons, places, institutions, organizations, months, and days.
Buddhism, Monday
Concrete Nouns
Refer to things that can be sensed through sight, hearing, touch, taste, or smell.
bookshelf, thunder
Abstract Nouns
Refer to ideas, emotions, qualities, or other intangible concepts.
sadness, truth
Count Nouns
Name things that can be counted, and thus can have a plural form.
violin(s), goose (geese)
Noncount Nouns, or Mass Nouns
Name things that typically are not counted in English and thus cannot be made plural.
water, health
Collective Nouns
Name groups, plural in sense by singular in form.
committee, crowd
Pronouns
Substitue for nouns.
she, they, it
Noun Antecedent
The noun a pronoun substitutes for.
LUCINDA said she was not feeling well.
Personal Pronouns
Refer to specific persons, places, or things.
I borrowed HIS book.
Demonstrative Pronouns
Point to their antecedent nouns.
THAT was an interesting idea.
Indefinate Pronouns
Refer to nonspecific perons, places, or things and do not require an antecedent.
NOTHING could be done.
Relative Pronouns
Introduce dependent clauses.
She is the teacher WHO runs marathons.
Interrogative Pronouns
Introduce questions.
WHOSE bike is this?
Reflexive Pronouns
Refers back to the subject to show that the subject itself is the object of an action.
She saw HERSELF in the mirror.
Intensive Pronouns
Used for emphasis.
They did it THEMSELVES.
Reciprocal Pronouns
Refer to the separate parts of a plural antecedent.
They gave presents to EACH OTHER.
Expletive Pronouns
Serve as introductory, "empty" words, occupying the position of grammatical subject.
THERE once was a pharaoh.
Verb
A word that expresses an action or a state of being.
swim, read, is, seemed
Auxilary/Helping Verbs and Model Verbs
Critical parts of special verb forms that express questions, future tenses, past tenses, and various degrees of doubt about or qualification of the main verb's action.
be, have do

may, might, can, could, will, would, shall, should, must
Transitive Verbs
Transfer action from an agent to an object or recipient.
Michael FUMBLED the ball.
In-trasitive Verbs
May express action, but they do not transfer it to an object or recipient.
The bridge COLLAPSED.
Active Voice
Active form of a verb.
He COMMITTED the crime.
Passive Voice
Passive form of a verb.
The crime WAS COMMITTED by him.
Indicative Mood
Make assertions, state opinions, ask questions.
Subjunctive Mood
Past-tense forms express unreal conditions or wishes.
I wish I WERE in Hawaii.
Imperative Mood
Appear in the base form to issue a command.
Don't DO that again.
Verbal
A verb form that functions in a sentence as a noun, an adverb, or adjective.
Participles, gerunds, and infinitive
Participles
Function as adjectives and can modify nouns or pronouns.
Beware of sweeping generalizations.

Keep floors swept.
Gerunds
Verb forms that end in ING and function as nouns.
SWEEPING is something I do not enjoy.
Infinitive
The base form of a verb that can function as nouns, adjectives, or adverbs.
Her desire TO QUIT is understandable.
Adjective
A word that modifies a noun or pronoun by qualifying or describing it, usually precedes the noun it modifies.
An OLD tree
Predicate Adjective
The adjective falls on the other side of the verb linking it to the noun it modifies.
The program was CHALLENGING.
Possesive, Demonstrative, Interrogative, and Indefinite Adjectives
Pronoun-like adjectives.
OUR school
THIS page
WHICH button do I push?
SOME money
Adverb
Modifies a verb, an adjective, another adverb, or an entire clause or sentence and usually answers when, where, how, how often, or to what extent?
The mayor lives ALONE in a downtown apartment.
Conjuctive Adverb
Modify an entire sentence or clause while linking it to the preceding sentence or clause.
however, thus, consequently
Preposition
A word that comes before a noun or pronoun and its modifiers to form a prepositional phrase.
in, on, of, for, by
Prepositions Phrase
Made up of a preposition, the object of a preposition, and any modifiers of the object.
in the water, off the deep end
Object of the Preposition
The noun or pronoun in a preposition.
into the BOX
Phrasal Verbs
Prepositions linked to verbs.
do without, put up with, look over
Participle
The preposition in phrasal verbs.
look OVER
Conjuction
Joins two sentences, clauses, phrases, or words.
The relationship between the two parts may be an equal, or coordinate, one: it may be an unequal, or subordinate, one.
Coordinating Conjuctions
Connect sentences, clauses phrases, or words that are parallel in meaning and grammatical structure.
and, but, or, nor, yet, so , for
Correlative Conjunctions
Pairs of conjunctions that give extra ephasis to the two parts of a coordinated construction.
both/and, neither/nor, either/or, not/but, whether/or, not only/but also
Subordinating Conjunctions
Introduce dependent clauses and connect them to main clauses.
although, because, if, since, unless, while
Interjections
A short utterance that expresses an emotional response.
Wow! Ouch!