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35 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
nociceptors
pain
thermoreceptors
temperature
mechanoreceptors
distortion caused by touch or pressure
chemoreceptors
molecules or class of molecules
photoreceptors
different wavelengths of light in the visible spectrum
electroreceptors
electrical fields
what is in the outer ear?
sound waves that enter the ear canal and then hit the tympanic membrane also known as the eardrum
what is in the middle ear?
two bones "ear ossicles" in the middle ear cavity, that are attached to the stapes cochlea and the oval window
what is in the inner ear?
the cochlea contains three fluid filled chambers that have tiny hairs called stereocilia
What happens when fluid enters the cochlea?
the fluid that carries pressure waves excite the hairs and then excite the sensory neurons that travel to the brain/central nervous system
Each hair cell in the ear has...
many stereocilia and one kinocilium
What is the significance of the kinocilium?
Depending on the pressure waves of fluid, if the kinocilium covers the hair cell, the hair cell is hyperpolarized. If the kinocilium reveals the hair cell, the cell is depolarized (this allows for potassium to come in)
steps to send sound neuron
1. fluid comes in and moves kinocilium out of the way
2. potassium enters the cell and depolarizes it
3. depolarization causes an influx of calcium
4. influx of calcium causes synaptic vessicles to fuse to the membrane
5. neurotransmitter is released
3 layers of the retina
1. photoreceptor cells (first, located at the back)
2. connecting neurons
3. ganglion cells (connected to the axons to the optic nerve)
rods
light
cones
color
rhodopson
protein complex within the rods and cones that sense the light
what is inside the rhodopsin protein complex?
opsin protein and the retinal molecule
what happens when rhodopsin absorbs light?
the retinal molecule changes conformation
4 players in the mechanism to absorb light (within a cone)
1 rhodopsin
2 GDP
3 phosphodiesterase
4 cGMP
what happens in the membrane of the rod when it senses light? 4 steps
1. retinal molecule and protein change conformation
2. GDP(transducin) becomes GTP and binds to phosphodiesterase
3. phosphodiesterase degrades cGMP into GMP which closes the channel (channel is open when unactivated)
Order of 3 opsin genes from shortest wavelength to longest
S, M, L
colors of shortest to longest wavelength
blue, green, yellow, red...
term to call a gene that is no longer used
pseudogene
ratio of olfactory receptors we use to what we dont
100 usable - 600 mutations - 1000 genes total
organization of muscle
tissue, bundle, fiber, sarcomere, myofibril, nuclei, myosin, actin
myosin
thick filaments
actin
thin filaments
steps of myosin movement
1. atp binds - head released
2. atp hydrolizes - head attaches
3. p is released, becomes adp - head moves
4. adp releases - head stays
CYCLE STARTS AGAIN!!!
tropomyosin
string like part that helps to block the myosin binding site
troponin
the bead part of the complex that blocks the binding site of actin
what causes the troponin-tropomyosin complex to move?
calcium binds to troponin
steps in muscle contraction
1. action potential arrives and ACh is released
2. ACh binds to its receptors and depolarizes it, creating action potential
3. action potential travels through muscle membrane and into cell via t-tubule
4. depolarization allows for calcium to enter from sarcoplasmic reticulum
5. muscle contracts when calcium binds to the troponin-tropomyosin complex
where is the t-tubule in relation to the sarcomere?
the t-tubule is inside the sarcomere
where does calcium go when the muscle is done doing its job?
calcium goes back into the sarcomere